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Here are brief evaluations of other websites which provide information about the Witch Hunts.  They were originally identified using commonly-available search engines. 

The page has been written by students of varying ability. You should use these pages as only a starting point for research about the facts, scholarship and internet sites available concerning witches.  
King's College, and/or the History Department faculty and/or Prof. Pavlac do not necessarily endorse the views or opinions published here or substantiate all information as fully accurate or  factual.
We apologize for any links that no longer connect.

General Sites | Specific Topics | Geographical Topics | Salem Sites | Historical Sources  
Links are arbitrarily ranked in rough order of usefulness, from top to bottom, within each category.
If links are noted as a Dead link? or don't connect, try the pasting the URL into the Wayback Machine <http://www.archive.org/index.php>.
See also Courses about the Witch Hunts!

For witch links to German language sites, click here.    


Durrant, Jonathan, with Richard Golden and Jeffrey Merrick. "The Witchcraft Bibliography Project Online." <http://www.witchcraftbib.co.uk/index.html>. University of North Texas.  (16 November 2008).
Dr. Durrant, Senior Lecturer in Early Modern History at the University of Glamorgan, is continuing the work of Jeffrey Merrick of the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee who had begun the Witchcraft Bibliography Project and then turned it over to Richard Golden, who is the Chair of the History Department at the University of North Texas and the editor of an encyclopedia about the Witch Hunts. Golden enlarged and emended the site between 1996 and 2000. The pdf file is a list of books and journal articles pertaining to witchcraft, available at <http://www.hist.unt.edu/web_resources/witchcraft_bib.pdf>. In that file, the titles are broken down by geographical areas, with special sections on demonology, historiography, and general reference works. The "Demonology" section itself contains eighty-six titles. The works are listed alphabetically by author, and are in twenty-one languages. The works listed are mostly secondary source books; the file does not claim to provide primary sources. 
This site allows browsing of the bibliographies by subject or region.  A blog allows for information on updates.  Here is a starting point for work in the field of European and American witchcraft.  Annotation by John Fitzpatrick, revised by Marisa Sedon. 

Baider, Fabienne and Anita C. Liang. Witches of the Web: A Review of Some Scholarly Sites on Witches. World Wide Web Reviews (Feminist Collections, v.20, no.2, Winter 1999). 22 March 1999. <http://www.library.wisc.edu/libraries/WomensStudies/fc/fcwebbai.htm> (16 November 2008). 
This page contains eleven links to other sites for information on witch-hunts. Originally published in Feminist Collections and now available online, Baider (who wrote a dissertation on Sexism in the French Language at the University of Toronto) and Liang (a visiting scholar in linguistics at the University of California-Berkeley) collaborated to produce this collection.  Unfortunately, six of these links do not connect. Although associated with the University of Wisconsin and its Women Studies program, the site has not been updated since 1999. This page is somewhat useful as a guide to those sites that still exist. Annotation by Eric Calabrese, revised by James Pasquale. 

Powell, Shantell. "The Witching Hours." The Shanmonster Page. 2002. <http://www.shanmonster.com/witch/index.html> (16 November 2008).
"The Witching Hours" is a hard page to figure out. While some parts of the page are objective and somewhat useful, others are downright strange. The author of the page is Shantell Powell, a dancer, artist, a self-professed agnostic, and an amateur historian with a B.A. in English and the Classics.  "The Witching Hours," as a part of her personal website, does contain a disclaimer that says it is a starting point for historical research, rather than an actual site for historical research.  The author offers enormous amounts of information about the general topic of the witch hunts in the format of pull-down menus, including primary source documents of certain trials or parts of the Malleus Maleficarum. It also has links to other pages and a section of very brief descriptions of books about the topic. Though authoritative sources are referenced throughout, a feminist bias is very much present.  Particularly useful for beginners, advanced researchers ought to examine the more scholarly sources included in the bibliography and the links.  Annotation by Jennifer Levisky, with Dana Romano, revised by James Pasquale.  

Museum of Witchcraft, Boscastle Cornwall.  2006. <http://www.museumofwitchcraft.com/> (16 November2008).
The museum "houses the world's largest collection of witchcraft related artifacts and regalia."  The curator of the museum apparently believes in actual powers of the supernatural. The online presentation includes some good pictures and descriptions of various aspects of witchcraft.  The museum houses 20th century documents related to witchcraft and the occult, and the worlds best collection of ritual and sex magic objects. The site does not provide much information to anyone conducting research except for seeking an understanding about a particular artifact if the museum has it. The main purpose of this website is to advertise the museum. Annotation by Robert Donahue. 

Carlsen, I. Marc. "Historical Occult Links."  University of Tulsa. 16 June 2006. <http://www.personal.utulsa.edu/~marc-carlson/carl4.html> (16 November 2008).
Librarian of Special Collections and University Archives at the University of Tulsa, and Historical Researcher.  Links to other sites and detailed lists by Carlsen of hunt victims.

Cox, Bradley. "Witch Hunts." Virtual School. 1997. <http://www.virtualschool.edu/mon/SocialConstruction/Witch Hunts.html> (9 March 2009).
Bradley Cox who founded "Virtual School," works for the George Mason University program on social and organizational learning. He has extensive education including a bachelors degree in science, organic chemistry, and mathematics, doctor in philosophy, and post-doctoral fellow. 
On this site, Cox describes a brief history of the witch hunts in many different countries including Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Ireland, and the United States. The first part, "Witch Hunts," provides a brief history and gives different statistics on the number of witches tried and convicted to die. 
The second section, "Witches and Witch Hunting," describes torture and the types of evidence admissible in court. He references The Evolution of Criminal Justice by Sandy Judd and The Return of the Witch Hunts by Jonathan G. Harris.  The third section,  "Magic," compares and contrasts the rituals of magic and the rituals of religion.  This site  is good for the beginner and the advanced. Annotation by Mark Pisano.

Jones, Adam. "Case Study: The European Witch Hunts, c.1450-1750 and Witch-Hunts Today." Gendercide Watch. 1999. <http://www. gendercide.org/case_witchhunts.html> (10 July 2006). 
Gendercide Watch is against gender-related crimes, especially infanticide and genocide. Jones is currently a professor of International Studies at the Center for Research and Teaching in Economics (CIDE) in Mexico City. His writings on gender and international politics have appeared in Journal of Genocide Research, Review of International Studies, Ethnic & Racial Studies, Caribbean Studies, and other publications.  Some of the language used on the site is very strong (i.e. Burning Times, and Witch-Craze) and the viewpoint is based on the theory that the witch-hunts were an attempt by masculine dominated culture to eradicate the females. There were many references to the online work of amateur scholar Jenny Gibbons (although those links no longer work), as well as to professional scholarship by Brian Levack, Deborah Wiley, and Robin Briggs.  Illustrations show witches being tried, burned, etc.  The last portion focuses on witch persecutions going on today, especially in Africa. 
I feel that this would be a good site for a beginner to use. Annotation by Brian Hazlak, revised by Kimberly Pleban.

ODubhain, Searles and Deborah. "Hall of Remembrance." The Summerlands. 1996. <http://www.summerlands.com/crossroads/remembrance/index.html> (9 March 2009).  
The site is all about pagan/wiccan/witches and is for the real modern day believer. The Hall of Remembrance main page has several choices: FAQ, Message Board, The Library, Burning Times Encyclopedia, The Victims, Guest Book and Modern Persecutions. Much of the information on the witch hunts is from the 1990s and by Jenny Gibbons, an MA in Medieval Studies. Jenny Gibbons uses primary sources mostly to answer questions and has a few trial transcripts and letters from victims posted. She is reviewing secondary sources for the most part and is a stickler for accuracy. She shows great disdain for those that do show a bias in their works. The site is written in a way that not only can serious students of the Witch Hunts find it helpful but also the average person interested would find it very easy to understand and would learn an amazing amount from this site. I personally found this to be a terrific site and have bookmarked it and will return in the future.  Annotation by Sandra Silvey.

Booth, David. Essays on Witch Hunting and Witch Discourse. Personal Homepage, St. Olaf College. August 16 1996. <http://www.stolaf.edu/people/booth/DsEssays.html> (10 July 2006).
The website provides links to two articles and an abstract that address the Witch Hunts by a religion professor from St. Olaf college in Minnesota as part of a course: Paracollege 205 "Witch" Trials: Conflict of Interpretations in History and Religion.  It contains excerpts of essays he has written on witch hunting and witch discourse as supplemental research to those interested in the studies of femininity, Christian discourse, and witchcraft.  Each of the essays contained on this website deal with how the witch-hunts were targeted at and affected women. The first essay, "Dubious American Ideal: Gender and Historical Knowledge in The Crucible," looks at the historical accuracy of Arthur Millers play and suggests a rereading of it in light of womens historical experiences. When reading the second essay, "Witches Can do Marvelous Things: Witch Powers as Rhetorical Device in the Texts of Witch Hunters," the reader is immediately struck by the unusual subject matter discussed that being how witchcraft caused the disappearance of a mans genitals. There, that author drew upon period texts, such as the manual of the inquisitors the Malleus Maleficarum. He also described the symbolic significance and importance of the male member in the Christian context, and how much impact witchcraft could have on that part. The final abstract, "'Witch' and 'Woman' in the Discourse of Witch Hunting: Semiotic Reflections," deals with the early modern idea of witch and how it contributes to the idea of woman today. While these essays may be too complex for a beginning student, Booths research is an extremely insightful resource. Annotation by Leslie Martin, revised by Chris Kasbohm.

Laren. "Witch Craze History," Stella Australis. 7 April 2000. <http://www.geocities.com/Athens/2962/history/index.html> (12 November 2008).
This site, done by an Australian neo-pagan, gives a mixture of the authors views on witches along with some other links to where there is some other scholarly research. She clearly distinguishes between what is her personal opinion (such as belief in Tarot cards and the Sabbat) and what scholars generally considered fact (e.g. that no one causal factor caused the witch hunts). The site deals with many topics involved in the witch-hunts, paying specific attention to the Malleus Maleficarum. This is followed by the authors views on the subject, along with time lines of the witch craze in countries such as England and Scotland and good essays on the numbers of dead and kinds of victims. The authors view is pretty basic:  the killings were done from a religious standpoint to rid the world of Satan, although there were no witches to kill in the first place.  The site has not been updated since 2000.  Annotation by David Ruggles, with Jeremy Kattner, revised by Mark Esposito.

Robinson, B.A. "The Burning Times: The past extermination of Witches and other heretics." Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. 2 July 2006.  <http://www.religioustolerance.org/wic_burn.htm> (14 November 2008).
The author, introduces his brief list of bulleted points by saying he plans on telling the truth about the witch hunts and showing why many other authors, especially Neopagans, are wrong. He gives the original Neopagan findings, compared to what really happened.  Examples of this are in the numbers of witch killings (50,000-100,000 people), when and where they were tried (1500-1650), and where these witches were from (Switzerland, Germany, France). 
Two links go to a more detailed look at "The Burning Times" and a useful annotated timeline of important events during the hunts.  His sources are a few, yet respectable websites and texts.  The Religious Tolerance website seeks to explore objectively views of many religions, and this page is part of a large area about Wicca.  The site is recommended as a brief introduction to key points and controversies.  Annotation by David Ruggles, revised by Kimberly Pleban.  

Schoeneman, Thomas. Criticism of the Psychopathological Interpretation of Witch Hunts: A Review. 26 June 2002. Lewis and Clark College. <http://lclark.edu/~schoen/witchtext.html> (17 November 2008). 
Dr. Schoeneman, a professor (whose research interest is in that of mental disorders and the portrayal of such by the media) at Lewis and Clark College in Portland, Oregon, wrote this article in an attempt to critique the evidence that has been provided and accepted as support for the psychopathological theory of the witch hunts, which claims that the accused witches, especially those who confessed, were actually mentally ill. He discusses the problems of data collection and interpretation, which include previous historians use of confessions provided under torture or false promises of mercy and also their practice of ignoring the cases and evidence which did not fit their theory.  He further discusses the problem that since researchers of the witch hunts use historians who base their theories on conclusions drawn from erroneous data, they stray further from the truth. He also discusses the philosophical issues that arise when attempting to study the witch hunts as a proliferation of mental illness, making the claim that it is easier to explain witch hunting in terms of its social and cultural determinants. Dr. Shoeneman provides a list of sixty-three sources and also lists his e-mail address at which one can contact him with further questions about his research/  While this website is a valuable source for studying the witch hunts, the language he uses is very challenging and since his topic is narrow. Annotation by Matthew Gingo, updated by Jonathan Grochowski, and revised by Keri Ann Stevenson.

"Witch Hunts." Open Directory Project. 3 September 2008.  <http://dmoz.org/Society/History/By_Topic/Social_History/Oppression_and_Intolerance/Witch_Hunts/> (16 November 2008).
The Open Directory Project is a search engine that is maintained by volunteer editors who find good results on the web. This page houses many links to different sites about the witch craze and its history with very brief explanations of what is on those linked pages. The links go to a few links pagan/wiccan sites where authors may be biased toward believing that magic is and was real during the time of the witch hunts. There are many links to primary sources that go to court documents and parts of books, such as Malleus Maleficarum, that were written during the witch hunts. Also, there are many links about the Salem Witch Trials that could be useful to beginners that are interested in the topic and could find out some background information on what occurred.  A few links do not work.  Annotation by Dana Romano, revised by Marisa Sedon.

Teeland, Jan. SP3Is Witch-Hunt Project. Witch-hunt Project. <http://www.vasa.gavle.se/projekt/Witch/> (9 March 2009). 
Jan Teeland, the publisher of this website, is an English teacher at Vasaskolan, a high school in Gvle, Sweden. The authors of this website are the students in Teelandss English class studied the witch-hunts from five different perspectives: witch-hunting in Gvle county in the 1600s; a historical background of 17th century England, particularly Cromwell and also the Salem Witch trials; women and witch-hunting; homosexuals and witch-hunting, and the neo-nazi movement. The students and broadened witch-hunting to include someone who is hunted, discriminated against, or even killed because of who they are and what they believe in.  The modern day consequences tell us about the consequences of failing to learn and appreciate the makes made in the past.  One interesting part of the website is the research and testimonies found on the witch-hunts which occurred in the students hometown of Gvle. While there is a wealth of information provided by the students on this site, much of it lacks citations and is researched by those with no real expertise, with the interjection of the students opinions. To those who are unfamiliar with the witch-hunts, this website may only perpetuate myths about the witch-hunts rather than provide scholarly research and information. Annotated by Leslie Martin.

McCabe, Joseph. "The Story of Religious Controversy, Chapter XXII: New Light on Witchcraft." The Secular Web. 1995.  <http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/joseph_mccabe/religious_controversy/chapter_22.html>. (9 March 2009).
The site declares that one of its objectives is to teach tolerance, while placing a collective guilt on the Catholic and Protestant churches. McCabe wrote about this issue until his death in the 1950s. McCabe believes in the reality of witchcraft and justifies his thesis through the trials in England where torture was not applied. Throughout his argument, he tends to cite Murray and Shaws viewpoints for both support and to disagree with some of their contentions. This site is not scholarly but it is rather hard to understand.  Annotation by Peter Kizis. 

Olsen, Richard. "Why the rise of Supernatural Beliefs in 17th Century." 1992. <www.skeptic.com/01.4.olson-witches.html> (no link in 2006, perhaps will be refiled at http://www.skeptic.com/reading_room/socialforces/index.html). 
This site gives the origins of the witch hunts, and answers the questions as to how something as extreme as the witch craze could occur. Olsen's site gives a great deal of detail and accurate information along with infographics and pictures.  Annotation by Erin Nummey.

Ashliman, D. L. Witchcraft Legends. 2 December 2005. University of Pittsburgh. <http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/witch.html> 17 November 2008.
Professor Ashliman, who is retired from the University of Pittsburgh and doing his research in Southern Utah, translates or tells ten different stories or myths about witches, all of which originated in Europe and involve witches engaging in stereotypical witch activities like flying on broomsticks, turning themselves and others into objects or animals, and having some sort of relationship with the devil. In one such example, a skeptical husband challenges his wife, an elderly woman who is feared in the town for having skills in necromancy that allow her to cast successful spells, to go to town, find him good meat, and have a meal prepared in half an hour. The related links on the page lead to Ashliman's other websites with similar topics (and also one picture of the Witches Sabbath).  Although these stories are not strictly primary sources about the witch hunts per se, they are interesting to read.  Annotation by Keri Ann Stevenson. 

General Sites | Specific Topics | Geographical Topics | Salem Sites | Historical Sources  
Links are arbitrarily ranked in rough order of usefulness, from top to bottom, within each category.

Specific TopicsArt/Images, Torture, Ancient Magic, Disease and Health, Atheist Views, Pagan Views


"The Damned Art: An Exhibition: originally displayed 11 February - 20 March 1985." University of Glasgow n.d. <http://special.lib.gla.ac.uk/exhibns/damnedart/index.html#introduction> (10 November 2008).
This page by the library at the University of Glasgow lists books and shows illustrations from the collection on witchcraft of the late Professor John Ferguson. The list, which is organized by region, describes most of the important witch-related primary sources, with several nice illustrations. The list presented is an extremely useful guide to what primary sources can be consulted when studying witchcraft.  The suggested reading at the end provides excellent insight into the world of witchcraft.  Annotation by Adam Brasky.

"Witchcraft" Electronic Exhibition, Rare Books, University of Sydney Library. 7 February 2005. <http://www.library.usyd.edu.au/libraries/rare/witchcraft/witchome.html> ((9 March 2009).
Brief descriptions with pictures of many primary sources about witches.  

Images of the Devil ("diavolo" in Italian) <http://www.capurromrc.it/devil/diavolo.html>

Babinski, Edward T. "Images of satan, demon witches and werewolves." Edward T. Babinski, Bachelor of Science, Biology (22 October 2005) <http://edwardtbabinski.us/witches/index.html> (10 November 2008).  
This article is published on Edward Babinskis personal, self-titled website. Babinski, a library staff member at Furman University, has published a number of essays on Christianity and religion, but on this page devotes his efforts to matters of witchcraft and demonology. The relevant material on the page consists of a few quotes taken from primary and secondary sources, followed by Babinskis critical comments and a few links to more articles critical of witch-hunting, such as his "Witches, Divination, Magic and Satanism."  Of value are some of the classic pictures, by Schongauer, Cranach, etc., illustrating demons and witches.  Otherwise, the site is not a good source for someone wishing to gain information about the witch-hunts. Annotation by Adam Brasky.  

Bessanov, Nikolay. Inquistion Art. (2003) <http://inquisition.pp.ru/index.htm> (9 March 2009).
In Russian and English, this contemporary Russian Artist presents some historical images as well as his own modern interpretations.  

Torture (For more, click here for Torture page)

N.A. "A Heretic's Final Journey-Torture Methods." N.d. <http://www.borndigital.com/racking.htm> (9 March 2009).
At the top of this page, a disclaimer pointing out the reason that this website exists: to use an explicit description of torture to point out the dangers of religious extremism.  The website goes into good details about the use of torture devices used against heretics as either punishments or a way to get them to confess. There are not only pictures of the devices, but also artwork depicting tortures, executers, rooms, etc. This is a very credible site because it just does not give details, but it cites sources and explains the differences between their sources, whether or not they are tertiary, primary, or secondary. Some links go other pages that offer deeper detail about a device, idea, or concept that is not thoroughly explained right there. It is a good site that would be recommended if one was doing research in punishing heretics, etc.  A disclaimer at the bottom nicely describes and qualifies how the page is a tertiary source, that won't impress professors.  Annotation by Erin Nummey, revised by Jeff Telson.

Tower of London: Instruments of Torture. n.d. URL:  <http://london.allinfo-about.com/features/torture2.html> (11 November 2008).
This website is the information page of the Tower of London, and this particular page gives some brief descriptions of some torture devices that could still be viewed today.  More pages offer information on general issues of torture and some examples of prisoners in the tower. Although it discusses some of the history of the devices such as the rack, the scavenger's daughter, and manacles, the page is very brief.  Annotation by Jeff Telson.

Ancient Witches

Bohak , Gideon. "Traditions of Magic in Late Antiquity" December 1995.  <http://www.lib.umich.edu/pap/magic/intro.html> (9 March 2009).
Dr. Gideon Bohak is the Head of Program in Religion Studies at Tel-Aviv University. From 1994-1997, a post-doctoral fellowship at the University of Michigan required him to exhibit to help understand magic in the A.D. 1st-7th Middle East.  This page is a tour and overview of his exhibition. Bohak does not take a stand on whether or not an artifact is magic-related, because he believes that there is no universal definition of magic. What one cultural might see as sorcery might actually be religious or scientific.  He deals with recipe books, protective magic, amulets and gems, Babylonian Demon Bowls, and aggressive magic. The author has an extensive bibliography and provides footnotes at the bottom of each page. This page is helpful to anyone looking to find pictures and information on magical amulets, gems, spells or primary sources on ancient magic. His research would not be beneficial for researchers concentrating on medieval witchcraft.  Annotation by Matthew Gingo, with Marla Moses, revised by Robert Donahue.  

Bar Ilan, Meir. "Witches in the Bible and in the Talmud." (22 June 1999). <http://faculty.biu.ac.il/~barilm/witches.html> (17 November 2008).
The author of this site is a senior lecturer at the Talmud Department and the Jewish History Department of Bar-Ilan University in Israel. Although he believes that the history of witchcraft is merely history of nonsense, his purpose in writing this article is to discuss witchcraft amongst the ancient Jewish people and how it affected not only women, but the social relationship between men and women. He explains why women were so often associated with witchcraft by using a variety of passages from the Bible, the Apocrypha, and the Talmud to prove the relationship between the status of women in the ancient Jewish era and the widespread belief that the women were using sorcery and magic to gain social leverage in an attempt to endanger the men they were inferior to. Their supposed sorcery would therefore serve to increase their leadership abilities and social status. However, Bar Ilan does make it a point to indicate that the men who believed these things about the women were actually using it as a means of strengthening and increasing their own social power and exploiting the weakness and inferiority of their counterparts. The third part in this essay, Women Witches in Talmud, is the most in-depth. He points out that Jews were always looked upon as having some sort of "special powers". He uses such sources as Mishnah Abot 2:7, to give stories about women being accused of witchcraft, such as preventing babies from being born, sacraficing them to the Devil, or something like incense burning. It also dives into the teaching of R. Simeon bar Yohai, who believed most Jewish daughters were witches and that the "best in women were witches". Although this research is limited to one topic or aspect of the witch hunts, the website would be useful for someone studying the role gender played in the witch hunts, or for finding references to witches in ancient texts. The author also includes a series of forty-eight notes, about half of which may refer the reader to other reputable and potentially useful sources.  Annotation by David Ruggles, revised by Keri Ann Stevenson. 

Disease and Health

Lienhard, John H. "Rye Ergot and Witches." The Engines of Our Ingenuity. September 1997. <http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi1037.htm> (9 March 2009).
"The Engines of Our Ingenuity" is a nationally broadcasted radio program produced by KUHF-FM Houston which focuses on how human creativity. This page captures one in a series of many installments which offer a new perspective on popular myths and beliefs that people shared throughout history. This program was written and hosted by a Lienhard, the M.D. Anderson Professor Emeritus of Mechanical Engineering and History at the University of Houston. 
In a few short paragraphs, Lienhard discusses the historical findings of Linnda Caporael and Mary Matossian (Poisons of the Past, Yale University Press), which claim that mass rye ergot poisoning a fungus in breads which produces a potent hallucinatory drug played a significant role in the witch hunts, preceded the Salem witch trials and even the Black Death.  Few historians give credence to these ideas.  Annotation by Mark Pisano, with Kris Januzzi, revised by James Pasquale. 

Ehrenreich, Barbara and Deirdre English. "Witches, Midwives, and Nurses. A History of Women Healers." The Memory Hole. January 1996. URL:  <http://tmh.floonet.net/articles/witches.html> (9 March 2009).
This web page contains an article written by Barbara Ehrenreich and Deirdre English, feminist authors, originally published by The Feminist Press at CUNY in 1973. The author Barbara Ehrenreich obtained a Ph.D. in biology, but has become an activist for social change.  The article concentrates on the origins of discrimination against women, which the authors attribute to the witch-hunts, and how it relates and contributes to women in the medical profession.  The two authors adhere to the misogyny theory, arguing that women were treated as subservient to men in the healthcare system due to the origins of the witch persecutions.  The authors use sixteen secondary sources, and mention that this essay is based on a feminist interpretation of the Malleus Maleficarum. Written over thirty years ago, this essay has some historical value, but recent historians have not found sufficient evidence to support its argument about witch hunts focusing on midwives.  Annotation by Jonathan Grochowski, revised by Adam Brasky.

Atheist views

Dashu, Max. The Secret History of the Witches. Suppressed Histories Archives. March 2008. <http://www.suppressedhistories.net/secrethistory/secrethistory.html> (16 November 2008).
Max Dashu is an independent scholar influenced by the anti-war and womens liberation movements.  She founded the Suppressed Histories Archives in 1970.  The site contains dozens of lengthy articles, the overwhelming majority of which concern general womens history, from thousands of years before the Common Era to the tenth century.   Under The Secret History of the Witches, there are only four relevant articles Tregenda of the Witches, Serpent in the Mound, The Politics of Witchcraft Studies, and Xorguinas and Celestinas (concerning Basques in Spain about 1400-1500). There are some nice graphics, but they do not make the reading any easier. Only someone with a serious interest in this unique view of women's history would wade through the long articles. Annotation by Sandra Silvey, revised by James Pasquale.

Ellerbe, Helen. "Witch Hunts," from The Dark Side of Christian History." Positive Atheism <http://www.positiveatheism.org/hist/ellerbe1.htm> (14 November 2008).  
In this web page, an excerpt from her larger work The Dark Side of Christian History (1995), Helen Ellerbe focuses on how she believes the witch hunts forced the people in Europe to finally become Orthodox Christians.  She also sees the hunts as hostile acts against women.  Indignant about how the Christians persecuted witches, this page offers no citations of sources, many of witch seem quoted out of context.  For a harsh apologetic critique of The Dark Side of Christian History (1995) see http://www.tektonics.org/af/elbee.htmlAnnotation by Erin Nummey, revised by Mark Esposito.

Kelsos. "Witch Hunting and Population Policy," The Christian Heritage. 10 October 2000.   <http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/3612/witches.html>
(17 November 2008).

The Christian Heritage webite seeks to inform people about the bad things done by religion, namely, "an incredible amount of bloodshed, human sacrifice, fighting, humiliation, and misery." This article focuses its attention on answering a few main questions about the witch trials, including questions about the political goals involved in promoting the witch hunts, the impact the hunts had on Christian society, the influence the hunts still have today, and the connection between the sexual aspect of the witchcraft and the Christian value system. This particular page asserts that the witch hunts were an attempt by the church to curb population growth, which asserts that women were accused and persecuted because they had the ability to supply birth control and cause harm to babies as they were born. Religious authorities saw this power as a threat to the world as they knew it, especially since Christianity shunned the use of birth control, infant mortality rates were extremely high, and it was thought that a population increase was necessary for human survival. The page provides a very extensive bibliography that could be used for further research. Little is known about the identity or credentials of the author, or can be since the site seems to be orphaned. Although its assertions are not supported by most historians, this site might be worth reading if one is studying gender played in the witch hunts.  Annotation by Clark Gallo, with Steve Matusiewicz, revised by Keri Ann Stevenson.

Dowling, Dean R. "Witch Hunts and the Christian Mentality." Atheist Foundation of Australia, Inc. 1993. <http://www.atheistfoundation.org.au/witchhunts.htm> (9 March 2009).
Dean R. Dowling, is a retired Physics lecturer from the University of Ballarat.  Dowling has published many other essays linked to the Atheist Foundations website, including Infallible Religious Beliefs, Creation Science, and Christian Morality. Dowlings purpose for this site is manifested through the Atheist Foundations goal, to offer information in place of superstition and reason in place of faith, in which Dowling uses specific examples from the Christian tradition to expose its flaws regarding the hostility toward women in history, the witch-hunts, and even modern drug laws. Dowling seeks to denounce Christianity by citing how mistranslations of The Bible from Hebrew to Greek caused many to build false beliefs, as well as quoting several famous Christians such as St. Augustine, Tertullian, and St. Thomas Aquinas and their negative attitudes toward women. This site briefly covers the witch hunts.  He lists five excuses that Christians use in an apologetic fashion for what happened, such as, the mad delusion of the persecutors came from the Satan.  The atheists do not believe the witchcraft is real, but merely a figment of the imagination of the Christian Church. Much of the information included on this website lacks proper citations and thus requires further research to ensure its validity. The breadth of this site is fairly basic, simple and limited.  Annotation by Lori Castiglione with Leslie Martin, revised by Jeff Telson.

Pagan views

Phillips, Julia "Persecution Ancient and Modern" Lady of the Earth N.d. <http://www.ladyoftheearth.com/religious/persecutiion.txt> (9 March 2009).
The site is a copy of presentation made at a Wiccan Conference. There is a bibliography discussing good source on the witch hunts. The site says that the witch hunt was the persecution of a religious minority. It was also very misogynistic, and that it singled out and persecuted women. Annotation by Joe Zubko.

Mortale, Bestia. "Why the Witch Hunts?" 2006.  Widdershins. <http://widdershins.org/vol2iss4/m9609.htm> (16 November 2008).
Widdershins, is a Pacific Northwest pagan community newspaper, published between 1995 and 2007. Mortale's credentials are not given, but since the site is part of a pagan community, the author seems to hold pagan ideals and believes there really was witchcraft.  She comes down hard on the Christian church, and stresses the importance of the accused themselves, contending, "witches really were the main players in the witch drama." Mortale suggests three main reasons for the with hunts. First, unlike most of their female contemporaries, wise women and midwives held considerable power, especially in rural communities, often as the sole health care providers and thus, revered and feared alike. Not only were they powerful, but unmarried women posed a problem for patriarchal Renaissance society. Mortale suggests that the Church felt particularly threatened by these women -- "powerful proponents of non-Christian values" -- because they practiced magic(k).  Second, Mortale proposes that many single/widowed country women were eager for sexual fulfillment. She asserts that there was probably lots of sex in the countryside: especially the female-initiated, out-of-wedlock, taboo variety. Mortale sees the witch hunts, at least in part, as attempts by the Church and governments to Christianize the countryside and purge it of such troublesome women. Finally, Mortale holds that it's reasonable to say that wise women "dabbled in mind-altering experiences:"  Other impetuses for witch hunting Mortale mentions briefly: the desire to confiscate property, the corruption of the Catholic Inquisition, and the generally uncomfortable religious climate of the day.  Mortale's "Why the Witch Hunts?" is interesting and perhaps worth a read, so long as one remembers that the article isn't scholarly in nature. The bibliography contains a few scholarly works on witchcraft and suggests that Mortale did at least some research. Annotation by Jennifer York, with Dana Romano, revised by Kimberly Pleban.

Lady Hawkwind "The Wiccan Historian," (2002) <http://wiccanhistorian.home.att.net/histories/torture.html> (9 March 2009). 
A number of readable essays on aspects of the witch hunts by an amateur.  Written with good, but rather old sources, and with a Wiccan concern about persecution.  

"Witchcraft." n.d. Paralumun. <http://www.paralumun.com/witchcraft.htm> (16 November 2008).
Paralumum is a contemporary web site created by a new-age womens group whose main focus centers around the practice of neo witchcraft. The site consists of a compilation of links to current articles by contributors from the Associated Press, a number of journals and periodicals, a small list of witchcraft terminology, and even few descriptions of historical witch trials. 
Making brief mention of only four trials in history, Paralumun fails to investigate the subject deeply.  The creators of this webpage offer no original contributions which they have authored; however, they do offer many links to information which the individuals frequenting the page may find helpful or interesting. The page provides links to several articles about Harry Potter. It even offers spells to mend broken friendship, protect the home and freeze something out of your life. For a very simplistic and superficial view of witches and witchcraft, this site is tops.  Anyone seriously engaged in a study on the historical aspect of witchcraft should find another web source to find evidence and information.  Annotation by Sarah McKelvy, revised by Marisa Sedon.

McGrath, Adrian Nicholas. "TheWitches: Myth and Reality." ParaScope. n.d. <http://www.parascope.com/en/articles/witches.htm> (9 March 2009).
ParaScope.com exists to provide information about conspiracies, cover ups and the paranormal. On this particular site it discusses the truths and myths about witchcraft.  The site is divided into five sections beginning with "Samhain and All Hallow's Eve" to explain the Celtic and pagan origins of witchcraft. Then the sections "The Burning Times" and "Father Spee and the Voice of Reason" which describe the various trial systems and punishments for those accuse of practicing the now evil witchcraft. The final section "Salem and the Legacy of the Witch" has information about what is the most commonly known time in the history of witchcraft. The final link on the page is titled "Recommended Reading" there the visitor is given a list of the books used for information on this site, but only a few links to other sites. Some good pictures, many from primary sources, decorate the pages. Annotation by Marla Moses.

"Witchcraft Craze History: Intellectual Foundations." MSN Groups. n.d. <http://my.msnusers.com/PoeticWitches/intellectualfoundations.msnw> (11 November 2008).
This page is part of a newsgroup on MSN where pagan or non-pagan people share their poems or articles. The anonymous author (Milly?) does not offer what the title implies.  Instead the site explains the general topics of witchcraft separately such as the Devil, the Sabbat and what the witches were accused of doing -- with many misspellings and grammatical errors. Other links on this page lead to message boards, poems and songs and other articles about the witch hunts that seem to be written by the same author, because of the same page setup and writing format. The author does cite three secondary sources along with a link to an encyclopedia article that does not work. This site should not be used as a valid internet source because of its vagueness, poor editing, absent creation date and unknown author.  Annotation by Dana Romano, revised by Jeff Telson.

Flower, Lily. "The Burning Times." Mystic Corners. 26 June 1999. <http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Delphi/1870/pg.5html> (9 March 2009).
The Burning Times is a website developed by an Ontario high school student, who goes by the name Lily-Flower. Lily Flower, a self proclaimed Wicca, states that her website was originally developed as a project for her class. On the awards page there was an award for the pagan teen. Lily Flower extensively defends Wicca.  The essay does not go in-depth. There is also no reference to where she acquired her information. The site was obviously done by a beginner.  Annotation by Thomas Flanagan, revised by Robert Donahue. 

Deanna, a.k.a. Midnyte Rose. "The History of Witchcraft and the Salem Witchcraft Trials." 1998-1999. <www.angelfire.com/mi/WitchHistoryReport>. ( 16 November 2008).  
A high school student created this webpage to share the term paper she wrote on the history of witchcraft. The essay is typical of what one might expect of a high school student: under-researched, replete with sweeping generalizations, and quite anti-Christian. This bias leads her to rely heavily upon Wiccan and pagan websites for her research (http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/4885/index.htmlhttp://www.celticcrow.com/).  The bibliography reveals that the author did not include any scholarly materials in her research; many of the links are dead.  She gives the exaggerated figure of nine million torture victims of the witchcraft trials; she offers Christianity as static and monolithic throughout the medieval period; and she takes a very simplistic view of the causes of witchcraft trials.  Another theme of the essays is an attempt to link ancient earth-magic practices to modern-day Wiccans. Misspellings and typographical errors are many. The design of the site, while a bit oppressive in its brown velvet-like background and red and blue lettering, is not difficult to read. Upon opening the homepage, midi music begins to play. Navigation, while a bit precious in its use of flowers to click on, is easy and logical. Annoying popup windows plague the page.  Anyone using this webpage for information should be skeptical of what is found there until it is supported by a better known author.  Annotation by John Fitzpatrick, revised by Marisa Sedon.  

Cuhulain, Kerr. The Witches Voice. Witch Hunts-Exposing The Lies. 1997. <http://www.witchvox.com/xwitchhunts.html> (9 March 2009). 
The Wiccan website that Kerr Cuhulain has created explores the world of pagan religions. Even without formal education credentials in this field, Cuhulain has assembled a vast amount of links to other pagan societies and websites for people to contact. The creator boasts to have the largest listing of Witches, Pagans, Heathens, and Wiccans on the Planet." Included in the site is a question forum, links and testimony by people and various articles written by people. The site is geared towards one who has some knowledge of pagan religions. While this site is useful for one looking into the Wiccan culture, it does not serve a greater educational purpose. Little useful information about early modern witches, the witch hunts,or witch trials are available this site.  Annotated by Eric Calabrese.

Links are arbitrarily ranked in rough order of usefulness, from top to bottom, within each category.
raphically Specific Topics
GermanyBritain | Scandinavia | Salem & America


Nenonen, Marko, and Kervinen, Timo. "Witchcraft, magic and witch trials in Finland." 1992. <http://www.uta.fi/laitokset/historia/noitanetti/> (18 November 2008).
Kervinen, a lawyer and criminologist, and Nenonen, with a Ph.D. from the University of Tampere (1992) where he is a Docent in Finnish History, wanted to provide the best-known evidence about witchcraft, magic and witch trials in Finland. All of the information presented is based on scholarly works and on the critical analysis of original (primary) sources. In this site both men state that their intention is to meet the best moral and intellectual standards in maintaining these pages. These pages synopsize the hunts between 1500 and 1700, when over 2000 charges against people were brought. Nenonen states that witchcraft in Finland was not primarily associated with the female gender or the lower rungs of society: more than half of the accused were men, and the majority of those charged were people of considerable wealth ( farmers and their wives, and in towns, burghers or their wives). As for such beliefs as the Devils Sabbath and diabolism, the Finnish clergy and the learned elite discredited this until the 1660s. One page also has information about Finnish shamans and the tools that they used work their magic including the lappish drum.  This site provides numerous links, varying from general surveys of different areas to very narrow topics such as the logistics of specific trials. One such example of a specific topic discussed is the number of charges (2,000) brought against people in Finland between 1520-1750 for sorcery.  The authors claim that this site is appropriate for anyone over the age of twelve, but there are also many scholarly links contained in this site that would be more appropriate for someone with more of a background in the subject.  Some parts of the site are written in Finnish. Annotation by Kristopher Atkinson, with Joe Zubko.

Hagen, Rune. "The Witches Sabbath at Yuletide." Rune Hagen Hjemmeside. 1997. <http://ansatte.uit.no/rha003/christma.htm> (10 November 2008).
This article, written by Rune Hagen, a professor at Universitetet I Tromso who specializes in subjects of demonology and witchcraft.  This page, translated into English by Mark Ledingham, tells the story of accused witch Mari Jorgensdatter in Finnmark in the early seventeenth century. She was reported to have met with the devil, fly, and hold Sabbaths with other witches on Christmas eve. She was also accused of causing a storm three years previously that killed ten fishermen. She confessed to all of these accusation in court. The confessions were obtained because the authorities used the "swimming the witch" method of torture.  Mainly based on primary sources such as old legal documents and court records from 1695.  The page is also includes  the story of Ane Larsdatter, who was tortured and confessed to the crimes. This site also has a section titled "Satan in the North" explains the idea that Satan lived in the northern regions of the world. This would mean that Satan would have more influence on witches in the north because he was closer.  Along with discussing specific forms of torture and how they induced confessions from accused witches, the article also includes vivid descriptions by women of their interactions with the Devil.  Hagen has many more pages on witches, in Norwegian, and provides useful links to more research in various languages.  One page has "The Shaman of Alta, the 1627 Witch Trial of Quiwe Baarsen." Overall, this site contains much accurate and interesting information, and would be very useful to all levels of witch-hunt students.  Annotation by Mark Pisano, revised by Adam Brasky. 

Museum of Icelandic Sorcery and Witchcraft. "The Witch-hunts in Iceland." Icelandic Sorcery and Witchcraft.
2008. <http://www.vestfirdir.is/galdrasyning/> (14 November 2008).

This museum in Holmavik in the Strandir region of Iceland offers various resources about itself and the study of witchcraft. The link in the upper right "The History of Icelandic Sorcery" offers the most historical information. 
Between 1625 and 1683, 170 Icelanders were accused of witchcraft, courts have records of 130 trials, and 21 people were burned alive (only 1 was a woman). The main charges levied against Icelandic witches were making people/livestock ill, being in possession of grimoires and goldrastafir (magical signs/staves), waking the dead, and healing with magic. Some accusations mentioned blasphemy, but it was seldom the sole accusation, usually appearing in conjunction with other charges. As on the Continent, the accused were mainly lower class, but some sheriffs and clergymen were accused also (though never physically punished).  The page is perhaps more helpful if one has a background in the European hunts.  Annotation by Jennifer York, revised by Mark Esposito.


Nix, Dietmar. "The Witch Hunt: Malefice Justice in Early Modern Times." HISTOR.WS. (2007).
<http://histor.ws/hexen/eng/index.htm>  (10 November 2008).
This web site is originally in German, and the English translations are at times poorly done and difficult to understand.  Certain links go to German language pages, so click on the British flag in the menu bar to link to an English translation. Dr. Nix is the author of a dissertation on the witch hunter Hermann Löher.  The website provides a wide-range of information including the definition of the witch trials; the time frame in which the trials took place; information on the victims and hunters; as well as the role of superstition and the church in the hunts.  Nix includes an internal search engine on the website using keywords to navigate through and find relevant information on ones study. Another feature of the site includes an extensive, downloadable, bibliography of nearly 3,500 entries dealing with sources and literature on magic and witchcraft. Unique to this website is a picture archive containing thousands of portraits of rulers, victims, and prosecutors along with a short history of each and their birth and death dates. Nix also includes a text archive of downloadable source literature. A forum allows visitors to the site to contribute theories about the cause of the hunts, unfortunately the postings have not been translated from German. The links at the bottom of the page lead to other historical topics, in German. A fun feature of this site is a little game called "You Are Accused," which gives the reader a chance to see how he/she would've fared if stood accused of witchcraft. (Click on "The Trial" button).  Given the extensive amount of information available on this website, it serves as a tool to both beginners and scholars in the study of witchcraft alike.  Annotation by Jennifer York with Leslie Martin, revised by Chris Kasbohm. 

Heisser, Peter. "The Lindheim Witch Trials." The Schuler of Lindheim Page. n.d. <http://www.phm-se.com/Lindheim.htm> (3 November 2008).
This is an invaluable website. This site illustrates the Lindheim Witch Trials, which took place in the years 1663 and 1664. It encompasses three separate witch trials. This site offers many links that serve as very helpful resources for research. One of the best things on this site is the video link, which shows you a video of witches awaiting their trial. The video is of witches awaiting their execution at the Witchtower of Lindheim. It gives you an extra insight into the topic and makes it a little more personal. The site also gives you names of people that were killed or executed during the trials. This is a great site that gives a personal edge and helps in understanding the witch trials from the perspective of  specific trials. Annotation by Kimberly Pleban.


Bunn, A. W. Ivan. "The Lowestoft Witches." 2005. Lowestoft Witches. <http://www.lowestoftwitches.com/> (12 November 2008).  
This site offers detailed information on  the trial of the Lowestoft Witches, namely Amy Denny and Rose Cullender who were executed in 1660. This trial set the precedent used for the famous witch trials in Salem. Based on the book by Gilbert Geis and Bunn, A Trial of Witches (London: Routledge, 1997), the site offers the text of the best primary source, with hyperlinks to pages explaining legal terms and presenting biographical details of participants, such as Matthew Hale. The trial text is written in old-fashioned English, making it somewhat challenging to understand.   Go to "Click here to follow the trial of the Lowestoft Witches."  Annotation by Gareth Henderson.  

Hoggard, Brian. "Apotropaios, formerly Folk Magic in Britain." Apotropaios. ( 2008). <http://www.apotropaios.co.uk/> (10 November 2008).
Brian Hoggard published this site as his Ph.D. project. Hoggard relies mainly on the work of Ralph Merrifield, an expert in the field of folk magic, as the basis for the information on his site. The site does not focus on spells and witchcraft itself, but rather the "evil-averting" artifacts that remain from the era that are linked to witchcraft. Items, such as Witch-bottles, dried cats, childrens shoes, horse skulls, and even some written charms have been found hidden in homes and buildings dating back to the 14th and 15th centuries. This site explains why they are there, and their significance, using pictures to show the reader exactly what is being talked about. There are comprehensive links on the page, and they provide a good start for research on the European hunts. 
This site was well composed, easy to read, and it provided clear examples and essential history. It is a very good site to visit, because the links alone are a very useful tool in discovering the truth behind folk magic.  See also "The Archeology of Folk Magic." White Dragon. <http://www.whitedragon.org.uk/articles/folk.htm>.  Annotation by Brian Hazlak with Steve Matusiewicz,  revised by Chris Kasbohm.

Allen, Greg Dawson. "Aberdeens Charmers and the Scottish Play." Leopard: The Magazine for North-East Scotland. October 2002. <http://www.leopardmag.co.uk/feats/witches.html> (12 November 2008). 
The writer of the article of the website is an award winning playwright.  He has some education in Gaelic from the University of the Highlands and Islands, but no specific credentials on witches. The article mostly chronicles the persecution of a woman, Janet Wishart, in the town of Aberdeen, Scotland in 1596-1597. The article also mentions a possible connection between hunts in Aberdeen and Shakespeare's play, Macbeth. Annotation by Eric Calabrese, revised by Gareth Henderson. 

Davies, Owen. "Witchcraft and Magic History," Cunning Folk.com. 2008. <http://www.karisgarden.com/cunningfolk/home.htm> (14 November 2008).
Davies, who has a Ph.D. from Lancaster University and is a Reader in Social History at the University of Hertfordshire, has published two books concerning witchcraft: Witchcraft, Magic and Culture 1736-1951 and A People Bewitched: Witchcraft and Magic in 19th Century Somerset in 1999.  He examines the wise-men and women and their social conditions in England and explains the occurrences of the witch hunts in England. His information is very well researched using primary and secondary source materials. He also includes a series of articles concerning witchcraft, provides several useful links to other witchcraft-oriented sites, and annotated books on the subject. His website also lists spells, from love spells to curing a toothache, jokingly disavowing any responsibility for any of the spells if a person uses them.  Overall, his site is quite scholarly and is appropriate for advanced research on this particular aspect of the hunts as well as some general introduction. Annotation by Lori Castiglione, revised by Mark Esposito.

Alchin, L.K. "Elizabethan Era Witchcraft and Witches." Elizabethan Era 20 March 2008. <http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/elizabethan-witchcraft-and-witches.htm> (17 November 2008).
Brief paragraphs or lists covering the topics of Interesting Facts and information about Elizabethan Witchcraft and Witches in the Elizabethan Period, Timeline of Elizabethan Witchcraft and Witches, Elizabethan Witch Trials, Black Witches and White Witches ('Cunning Folk'), Queen Elizabeth and the Punishment of Elizabethan Witches, The people accused of being Elizabethan Witches, and The Elizabethan Belief in Witches.

Gent Frank J. "The Trial of the Bideford Witches." Gentfamily. 2001. <http://www.gentfamily.plus.com/bidefordwitches/index.html> (14 November 2008).
Gent first wrote a pamphlet on this hunt in 1982  to provide an analysis and understanding of the events of the Bideford trial in their wider social and historical context. Marianne Hester's citation in Wenches, Wantons and Witches  and a renewed interest in his book prompted him to publish online a fuller version of his book in 2001. The author has a B.A. in European Studies from Exeter University, a M.A. English Local History from Leicester University and a P.G.C.E. History, Integrated Studies from Southampton University. Contacted via email the author said, "I do not believe in witchcraft or practice it. I am interested in witchcraft persecutions because of the parallels with the persecution of Jews in history - my mother's family is Jewish, and she was a refugee from persecution in WWII."  There is also a link to the The Trial of Anne Bodenham edited by C. L'Estrange Ewen.  The formatting of the index page probably has an html flaw, producing a ling thin column of text.  This site is useful to begin a search of information on these individual witch trials.  Annotation by Clark Gallo, Eric Calabrese, revised by Kimberly Pleban. 

Hulford, Steve. "The Essex Witch Hunts." Steve & Victoria Hulford. <http://www.hulford.co.uk/intro.html>.
(16 November 2008).

The creator of this webpage is a believer in the Wiccan Way and is interested in the Paranormal, while he allegedly belongs to Mensa, U.K.  He chose to focus on a specific geographical area, Essex, England, when studying the witch hunts. The webpage is extremely well organized making information easily accessible. Some of the information found on this page was primary sources such as the Hatfield Peverel Trial in 1566, or the Confession of Rebecca West in 1645. The information offered on the witch hunts in Essex is also offered in a number of forms depending on the manner of study. These forms include searching a trial out in year order, name order or village order. It also presents witchcraft acts under different rulers such as Henry VIII, Edward VI, Elizabeth I, and George II. Finally there is a list of essays on the possible causes for the witch hunts by a number of different people, three of the contributions belonging to Steve Hulford. Other materials on the site deal with Wicca and cunning folk.  This webpage is a good starting point in studying the witch hunts in Essex England because it supplies the researcher primary sources and credible information.  Annotation by Marisa Sedon. 

Lorinda. Witch-hunts of Scotland: How the trial of Dr. Fian Began a New Craze. Wolf Singers Homepage. 13 February 1998. URL: <http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Parthenon/2891/witches.html> (11 November 2008).
This website was created by Lorinda (no last name mentioned), who goes by the alias Wolf Singer, a full time mother and part time student at Fresno State University. This website is dedicated to some of her many interests such as family, history term papers, and wolves. The title of this term paper is a bit misleading because of the small part Dr.Fian plays in the paper. Dr. Fian is one of a group of conspirators who was accused of witchcraft by King James VI of Scotland, later King James I of England (d. 1625) because of bizarre weather that affected the ship of his future wife and of his own ship on his way to Norway. The author provides seven secondary sources and King James' study of witchcraft, Daemonlogie. The trial of Dr. Fian and his alleged co-conspirators in 1591 led King James to consider witchcraft an evil that threatened his Calvinist faith, but more importantly his kingdom. Lorinda argues that King James eventually regretted his view on witchcraft, but most commoners had accepted his initial beliefs and were unwilling to change their hostility directed towards the accused. This content is basic and limited to this specific hunt. Annotation by Jonathan Grochowski, revised by Jeff Telson.

The Pendle Witches. Lancashire Grid for Learning. 2003. <http://www.lancsngfl.ac.uk/curriculum/literacy/lit_site/html/non_fiction/pendle_witches/index.htm> (16 November 2008).  Sometimes other pages refuse to load past the first page.
This site is part of a literacy activities site for teachers in Lancashire schools in the U.K. to have a better quality curriculum that involves resources that are technologically advanced and online for students in their classrooms. This site talks about the witches in Lancaster, England, only about the trials in 1612. There are photographs of the areas where witches lived that were accused. It gives brief background information about the key people involved with witchcraft accusations, such as James VI, as well as the accused themselves. Because of this brief information, this site could be useful to beginners who want to learn basic background information about the Pendle or Lancashire Witches. There is also a paragraph about Shakespeares play Macbeth about witches and how he would want to perform it before James VI, because it "appealed to James' superstitions."  Annotation by Dana Romano, revised by Adam Brasky.

Salem & America

National Geographic Society. "National Geographic: Salem Online Witch-Hunt Game." Salem Witchcraft Hysteria. 1997. <http://www.nationalgeographic.com/features/97/salem/> (11 November 2008).
The National Geographics web site on the witchcraft hysteria in Salem, Massachusetts teaches an important part of history in a creative, interactive way. Peter Winkler, who authored the story based on actual events leading to and about the Salem witch trials, worked with several other contributors to make the web site exceptional.  Beginning with a detailed description of conditions in that society, the participant is then given a character.  As could be guessed, this character is eventually charged with some form of witchcraft through intense questioning from the authorities, and several tortures of increasing severity.  Another benefit of the website is that the other minor characters have links attached to them.  These allow the viewer to read the real-life tales, which detail the characters experiences.  The site guides the reader through witch trial while offering information about actual accused witches and other prominent figures of the time, using quotations from people involved, factual information and secondary sources.  Though this site is targeted at a beginner audience, it is creative enough and luring enough to attract even an expert.  Annotation by Sarah McKelvy, revised by Chris Kasbohm.

Burns, Margo. " 17th Century Colonial New England, with special emphasis on the Essex County Witch-Hunt of 1692." 17th Century. 7 April 2007. <http://www.17thc.us/> (12 November 2008).
Margo Burns, the great (x10) granddaughter of Rebecca Nurse, an accused witch in Salem 1692, created this website. This site compiles or links to numerous essays and documents by various contributors about the goings-on of the particular time period in New England, with a special concentration on the Salem Witch Hunts. Many of the articles were written by Burns herself, who has some historical expertise in the field.  In hundred of annotated links, she offers good evaluations of their worth. Burns uses of a multitude of primary sources, including pages from Increase Mathers "Cases of Conscience Concerning Evil Spirits." She does list sixty-six primary sources one of which is from the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court Archives, Boston which has on record the court hearings of the people who were charged with being witches. She also offers an extensive bibliography for the serious researcher. From beginner to expert, this site is well worthwhile. Annotation by Sarah McKelvy, revised by Mark Esposito.

Linder, Douglas. " Salem Witchcraft Trials of 1692," Famous Trials. 3/2007. 
<http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/salem/salem.html> (14 November 2008).

The site was produced by Douglas Linder, a Professor at the University of Missouri-Kansas City Law School of Law. This page offers many different areas of famous trials such as the Socrates, Jesus, the Rosenbergs or the Nazis at Nuremberg. The Salem Witchcraft Trials of 1692, Famous Trials website offers many links to other sites and areas of focus. One highlight of the site is the map that it provides of the Salem witch trials. There are also many biographies included in the site that are great tools in aiding the understanding of the thoughts and feelings of the people alive during that time period.  This site seems to be fairly accurate in its information and cites many other sources that it uses for information. Many pictures are used to illustrate the times of the witch trials and there is an ample amount of sources provided for reference. Linder views the cause of the Salem witch hysteria as only an unfortunate combination of an ongoing frontier war, economic conditions, congregational strife, teenage boredom, and personal jealousies. The site is very easy to navigate and the information and links are clearly labeled. This site is highly recommended for anyone studying the witch-hunts or witch trials.  Annotation by Matthew Gingo, revised by Kimberly Pleban and Robert Donahue.  

Heyrman, Christine Leigh. "Witchcraft in Salem Village: Intersections of Religion and Society." National Humanities Center. January 2008. <http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/eighteen/ekeyinfo/salemwc.htm> (26 November 2008).
This page exists as an online resource for teachers who are planning to use Salem as a topic in their high school classroom. The National Humanities Center, includes this page as part resources on "Divining America: Religion in American History."  The author, who was a fellow at NHC in 1986-87, is currently Professor of History in the Department of History at the University of Delaware and the author of several books.  Broadly discusses the enduring historical debate over the Salem Witch Hunts, while briefly referencing diverse scholarly works which critically examine the principal causes and the Puritanical worldview.   This page is very useful to any person who wants to do some follow up research on the Salem Witch Trials.  Especially useful to secondary education teachers, tips and suggestions on developing student discussion. Comprehensive works cited list and online resources links page are also contained therein.  Annotation by Brian Hazlak, revised by James Pasquale.

Sutter, Tim. "Salem Witch Trials." 2007. <http://www.salemwitchtrials.com/index.html> (17 November 2008). 
Tim Sutter, the author of this website, is a website developer who decided to make this page about the witch hunts after he visited the Salem Witch Museum.  Out of eleven main links, the "Trial Transcripts" provide the most useful information, since they are primary sources maintained by the University of Virginia. Many of the other links on the page provide information that is easy to access, read, and understand.  "Salem Witchcraft" is a "scholarly" overview of the events. "The Afflicted", "The Accused", and "The Victims", and "Timeline", are lists. "Biographies" offer a few details about some of the people involved in these cases. "Salem Quiz" is a page to test how much of the information you have retained. "FAQ" had some general questions about the dates and people involved in the witch trials with very short answers. The site has received notice from the University of Virginia, CourtTV.com, CBS News and the Discovery Channel. Sutters theory about the cause of the witch hunts involves Salem politics, cold winter days, and the belief of the Puritans in the power of supposed witchcraft.  However, with little reference made to more reputable sources, links to pages about witch costumes and trips to Salem, and the advertisements cluttering the page, that this source may be better suited for childrens research projects than actual academic research.  Annotation by Sandra Silvey, with Eric Calabrese, revised by Keri Ann Stevenson.

Emrys, Wendilyn. A Preliminary Examination of the People of the Salem Witchcraze and 'The Crucible' Bloodthirsty.com. May 1997. <http://www.bloodthirsty.com/salem.html> (9 March 2008).
Wendilyn Emrys graduated from UCLA with a degree in History, and contributes historical term papers to the website. In her analysis of the Salem witch craze, Emrys thinks a political/social conflict within the village of Salem that led to accusations of witchcraft. She dismisses the theory of ergot poisoning and the delusion theory, which could explain the accusers's behavior. She compares the Salem witch trials to Arthur Millers play The Crucible, which was a parable about McCarthyism. Emrys uses three secondary sources for her information and they give an insightful background into the psyche of the village. She also includes a letter from Lieutenant Governor William Phips, a letter from the accused John Proctor. This website does not have much historical information, but Wendilyn Emrys paper does provide a good starting point for a beginner who is seeking background information on the Salem witch trials. Annotation by Jonathan Grochowski.

Lamb, Annette & LarryJohnson. The Topic: Salem Witch Trials. 42eXplore. December 2005. <http://www.42explore.com/salemwitch.htm> (16 November 2008).
This site provides a research base for teachers/students of any level on the Salem Witch Trials. There is a small overview of the event by the creator of the site, but the sites real value comes in the form of its extensive number of links (this site is included among the numerous links). These links and a brief synopsis of the content of each site are shown in a long list. While this site is dedicated to Salem, many links lead to other witch hunt sites. It is also a good site to find develop a topic for a research paper because the links allow for a broad topic search on issues directly involving the witch hunts.  Annotation by Jeremy Kattner, revised by Robert Donahue.

N.A. "The Salem Witch Trials" Salem Massachusetts: The City Guide. 11 February 2004. <http://salemweb.com/guide/witches.shtml> (9 March 2009).
This page is a sub-link from the Salem, Massachusetts city guide website. Since the witch trials were such an integral part of Salem's history, it has made the city a tourist attraction. The information on the site is limited, admitting it is only a brief introduction. There is a brief description of the trials in Salem as well as several quotes from people who lived through them. There are several pictures of interest in Salem such as gravesites, memorials and historical houses. It give definitions, locations of historic sites pertaining to the witch trials such as Jonathan Corwin's home known as the Witch House, John Hathorn's tomb called Old Burying Point, The Peabody Essex Museum, and the Salem Witch Trials Tercentenary Memorial. The most useful part of the page is the list of further reading on the subject.  Annotation by Jennifer Levisky, with Marla Moses.

Behling, Susanne. "Accused of Witchcraft." Notable Women Ancestors. n.d. <http://www.rootsweb.com/~nwa/witch.html> (11 November 2008).
Susanne "Sam" Behling is a geneaologist created the Notable Women Ancestors website and newsletter.  The page lists women accused of witchcraft were mostly from the Salem Witch Trials. The page includes the Declaration of Regret from the Salem jurors in 1692. One exception Helen Duncan, lived during World War II and was accused of being a witch because the British feared that her divining skills were so good that she might have been a spy or that she could have figured out the day of the Normandy landing.  The names link to pages on the site, presumably by Behling, and on other websites.  Many of those links are dead, since the page has not been updated.  There are several pictures and graphics, mostly paintings of witches or trials. There are also links to other sites about witchcraft including several pages about the Salem Witch Trials. This page has value only to someone who needs a starting point from which to study women accused of witchcraft.  Annotation by Jennifer Levisky revised by Jeff Telson. 

"Witchcraft - America." 17thCenturyNet.net.  4 October 2008 <http://www.17thcenturynet.net/17.witchcrafts.page.1.html>  (12 November 2008).  
This site is a search engine, but many of the links go to sites which deal with the selling of art, not with witchcraft. Each time the page is refreshed or loaded, the links change, making it hard to find anything relevant more than once.  Annotated by Gareth Henderson.

Historical Sources

"Cornell University Library Witchcraft Collection." Cornell University Library. <http://historical.library.cornell.edu/witchcraft/index.html> (9 March 2009).
Full-texts of numerous primary sources concerning the witch hunts.  The best place for primary sources on the web, with many full-texts and reproductions.  See also the invaluable introductory essay by Edward Peters, "The Literature of Demonology and Witchcraft" <http://digital.library.cornell.edu/w/witch/peters.html>. 

Holland, Henry.  A Treatise against witchcraft.  University of Wisconsin-Madison.  <http://www.history.wisc.edu/sommerville/367/hollandtreatise.htm(9 March 2009). 
Written in 1590, Hollands Treatise is a work that aims to expose the many evils sewn into the practices of witchcraft.  Addressed to Lord Robert Devereux, Holland details his motivation as a good Christian to show the many sins which witchcraft entails on its own.  Additionally, he connects the Devil to witchcraft, by way of showing witches to be the many figurative arms of Satan on Earth.  For that reason, Holland argues that witchcraft in any form must be combated, for tolerance of such evil would serve as a severe detriment to the society of that time.  This
source is offered as part of a course by J. P. Somerville,  367 Society and Ideas in Shakespeare's England <http://faculty.history.wisc.edu/sommerville/367/367 Schedule.htm> with links to "Witches Apprehended, Examined and Executed ...," excerpts from Scot, and the "Most Wonderful and True Story ...of Thomas Darling."  Annotation by Chris Kasbohm. 

Halsall, Paul, ed.. "Medieval Sourcebook." <http://www.fordham.edu/hastall/source/witches1.html> (9 March 2009). 
This site, compiled by a Fordham University Professor, presents translations of official documents concerning witchcraft:  Innocent VIII's bull summis desiderantes; an excerpt from Nider, and another from the Malleus Maleficarum. An introduction gives some interpretation of these documents and how they were significant at the time.  Annotation by Erin Nummey. 

Lovelace, Wicasta and Christie Rice, transcribers.  "The Malleus Maleficarum." Windhaven Network, Inc. 2001. <www.malleusmaleficarum.org> (9 March 2009).  
This site includes the text to this most famous witch-hunter's manual online (and in various downloadable formats), along with a few brief commentaries. The site also provides a summation written by Edo Nyland along with introductions to two early editions published in 1928 and 1948. The Malleus Maleficarum is a primary source of the inquisition, which shows what some people of 15th-Century Europe believed.  Annotation by Joe Zubko.

Lummer, Frank et al. "Early Modern Europe: The Witch Hunts" Hanover College Internet Archive of Texts and Documents. 25 October 1999. <http://history.hanover.edu/early/wh.html> (9 March 2009).
  This site is part of Hanover Colleges Internet Archive of Texts and Documents, which contains material related to the Italian Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation, the Catholic Reformation, China, and Japan. The site has not been updated in two years; an explanation on the site states that the students and faculty were unable to keep up with the work. The site presents selections of documents relating to witchcraft prosecutions without editorial comment. A very serious problem is that many of the links to the documents are dead; this seems to be due to the suspension of work on the site. Most of the Hanover Projects links are to primary source material, but all taken from George Lincoln Burrs The Witch Persecutions ( Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1907; reprint, 1971). The sixteen secondary source links all lead to places within the "JSTOR" site (http://www.jstor.org) which requires a subscription for viewing.  While the site offers an interesting selection of some primary sources, it suffers greatly from its dead links and interrupted work. Annotation by John Fitzpatrick.

Ray, Benjamin. "Salem Witch Trials Documentary Arcive and Transcription Project." University of Virginia. 2000. <http://etext.virginia.edu/salem/witchcraft/> (9 March 2009). 
This site is sponsored by the Electronic Text Center, Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, Special Collections Department, and the Geospatial and Statistical Data Center at the University of Virginia, in conjunction with the Boston Public Library, Danvers Archival Center, Peabody Essex Museum, Massachusetts Archives, and the Massachusetts Historical Society.  All of the links lead to sites that involve Danvers and its past when it was known as Salem Village. Maps, copies of documents, texts by Increase Mather and John Hale (as collected by George Lincoln Burr) and frequently asked questions are all good links for any one looking to do research about Salem Village. The web page cites the information very well, including days and years when the citation was written.  See also Links on Witchcraft, Magic & Religion by Christopher C. Fennell <http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/users/fennell/highland/harper/religlink.html>. Annotation by Thomas Flanagan. 

Goodare, Julian, Lauren Martin, Joyce Miller and Louise Yeoman. The Survey of Scottish Witchcraft 1563-1736. Scottish History, The University of Edinburgh. 2003. <http://www.shc.ed.ac.uk/Research/witches/index.html>. (6 October 2008).
Searchable database of over 4000 Witch trials. 

N.A. "Witch Hunt." Monstrous.com. n.d. <http://witches.monstrous.com/witch_hunt.htm> (9 March 2009).
This site provides information, merchandise, games, and multimedia on the supernatural, with pages on werewolves, vampires, ghosts, demons, zombies and aliens. While the site design leads visitors to believe it is merely a fun site on the macabre and the novelty of witchcraft it does provide information on the actual practice of magic through WICCA and pagans. A disclaimer comments that monsters reflect the archetypes upon which we built our dreams and society. The historical information is categorized chronologically and accompanied by pictures.  Annotation by Marla Moses.  

Le Beau, Bryan F. "The Carey Document: On the Trail of a Salem Death Warrant." Archiving Early America.
<http://earlyamerica.com/review/summer97/carey.html> (9 March 2009).
Professor Bryan F. Le Beau is a member of  the Department of History at Creighton University, a Jesuit institution. His research and teaching interests are in pre-Civil War United States cultural, especially religious, history, on which he has published widely. Le Beau talks about a fake document called The Carey Document, a forgery of a death warrant for Martha Carey on the crime of witchcraft. The site subject is very narrow, but it does show that some documents are not legitimate sources.  Annotation by Thomas Flanagan. 

Works On Witchcraft in the Miskatonic University Library. 1997, 2002. <http://www.yankeeclassic.com/miskatonic/danthropology/wicca/witchbks.htm> (12 November 2008).
The page is a listing of books and other works on witchcraft and witch-hunting that might be found in the library of the fictional Miskatonic University (the website has imagined this school to promote study of the stories of H.P. Lovecraft).  This collection would be a very impressive, listing over 30 actual primary sources from 1450 to 1735, with a few illustrations of the actual cover pages.  Unfortunately, the site only offers brief descriptions, with no links or access to real content.  Annotation by Gareth Henderson. 

Useful but inactive sites, dead links, available on the Wayback Machine at the Internet Archive:  <http://www.archive.org/index.php>.

Pontius, Joan. "Best Witches" [Formerly "Joan's Witch Directory"]. n.d. <http://web.archive.org/web/20020803064338/http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~jup/witches/>.  
This is the most complete web site on the subject of witches. The author, although currently difficult to identify, is a history professor at Rutgers University. Its main page contains links to several subtopics, such as people, dates, places, events, magic, torture, books, and healers. The site is very well organized, and also has full color illustrations, and complete timelines and official documents. It is one of the most informative sources available on the web.
This site archives a discussion group where one is free to post factual information from the history of witches. This is great, as much of it looks factual, but for most cases you have to take their word on it. Some information they get from encyclopedias and other books, but other parts of the links are question and answer parts that have various posts. Along the lines of having a report to do, or just looking for places to find witch craft material, this site is one of the best. It gives you many organized links on the subject of witches from the people involved, to the torture they used, to books you could find on the subject. I believe this is a great place for any beginning witch hunter to go to and get started with their research. It is also a great place for scholarly people who want to go and throw their thoughts into the mix with other people in that particular field. Annotation by Erin Nummey and David Ruggles.

Bethancourt III, W.J. "The Killing of Witches: A Chronicle of the Burning Times." Illusions! 29 October 2001.  <http://web.archive.org/web/20041206201932/http://www.illusions.com/burning/burnwitc.htm>. 
This extremely dramatic site is peppered with rewards from various witch and pagan groups and stresses a message of tolerance. Although the website is visually stimulating with its animations and special effects, the information is difficult to read and take seriously. The link about the more recent hunts in South Africa is interesting because it is something that few other sources include in their studies.  The extensive list of victims can also be found at <http://www.witchesway.net/links/burningtimes/executed.html>, <http://us.geocities.com/ladydionne13/page12.html>, and <http://www.skepticfiles.org/atheist/witchesd.htm>.  Links on the page include those to letters of praise written to the site, references of the author, and an extensive list of names of those who were killed through the witch hunts in various nations. This website is too littered with graphics and awards.   Annotation by Peter Kizis, with Joelle Yourglivch, revised by Keri Ann Stevenson.  

Gunn Robert M. How tales and beliefs of witchcraft and demons came to Scotland Witchcraft in Medieval Scotland. 1995, 2003 <http://web.archive.org/web/20061211005627/http://members.aol.com/skyelander/witch1.html>.
This site is dedicated to witchcraft in Medieval Scotland. The author, who has a M.A. in History, openly admits to not believing in witchcraft, but states that people in the past did. His article describes causes for the witch-hunt craze in the area, and openly discounts Christianity as the sole cause of the event. He also states that the hunts were not an attempt by the church to eradicate all other religions from the area. While the site is aimed at a narrow topic and does not offer links to further research its subject matter, it does cite reference material including three primary sources and a large number of secondary sources that can be found at the readers discretion to continue.  Annotation by Jeremy Kattner.  

Mercado, L. Monica. "Elements of the 17th century Witch-Hunts in New England, or The Unfortunate Realization of Mary Staples." Spring 1998. Topics in Early American Culture. <http://web.archive.org/web/20020306123549/http://www.columbia.edu/~mm843/main.html>.
Mercado, a student at Barnard College, built this site as a project for a seminar on Early American Material Culture,  her first class on this subject.  A majority of her information comes from John Demos "Entertaining Satan: Witchcraft and the Culture of Early New England" and David Halls edition of "Witch-Hunting in 17th Century New England." Mercado does discuss several common theories of with-hunts. She states that many hunts lasted as long as they did because of complex gatherings of rumor, suspicion, and observations stemming from other accused witches, neighborly quarrels, appearance of the witchs mark, and also items in homes that appeared to be from the devil.  Mercado draws quotes from these secondary sources, which were taken directly from the three trials that this site deals with. Annotation by Kristopher Atkinson, revised by Robert Donahue.

Rain. "Rain on the '9 million slain' myth" Goddess Knotwork. 10 March 1995. <http://web.archive.org/web/20010114173900/http://goddess.knotwork.com/(nobg)/articles/9mil.spider>.  
The Lonely Quest Anti-Disinformation Squad created this webpage in order to correct certain fabrications they have found in history, namely the number of individuals executed for the crime of witchcraft during witch hunts.  The author, not a historical expert, clearly seems to believe in witch craft. The page does not contain that much in the way of data about the witch hunts.  The page does contain an annotated bibliography. Goddess Knotwork on the Wayback Machine has few links that work.  I would not recommend the use of this site for any serious research into the witch hunts. Annotation by Clark Gallo, revised by Marisa Sedon.

Mary. "Mary Bradbury's Trial." My Cellar Down-Under. 1 April 1997. <http://web.archive.org/web/20031203134052/http://hometown.aol.com/MaryARoots/trial.index.html>. 
The site provides excerpts of depositions and testimony concerning  Mary Bradbury directly from the the Essex County archives. A link to the Putnam family traces the family line of the Bradburys. Mary, a descendant of two central figures in the Salem witch trials, put together the site.  Annotation by Peter Kizis.

Runes3@aol.com? "The Burning Times." 1998.

This site gives a detailed description on the persecution of witches with the times that have impacted history. It gives eleven questions on what the people would look for such as birthmarks, if they liked to dance, own a pet, broom, and many other questions they would ask if being interrogated as being a witch. There are excerpts from the Malleus Maleficarum as well from Exodus in the Bible dealing with witchcraft.  There are many links to other web sites that deal with witchcraft which is good so you can compare the information. The author also gives a list of over twenty books and also gives a list of movies dealing with witchcraft.
I could not find the author. Another problem that found was that a lot of the sites had either moved or they just would not come up. Annotation by Matthew Gingo. 

Lowman, Ashley E. "Salem Witch Trials." Religious Movements. 2 March 2001. <http://religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/nrms/salem.html>. 
This is a page of mostly links to sources for information on religion and the witch hunts of Salem. It has a complete bibliography that cites all the sources consulted to compile the site and provides information on the religious influence of the persecution of "witches" during the 1692 witch scare in Salem. Massachusetts.  Annotation by Marla Moses.

Other Possibly Useful Sites to be Reviewed.  Have you have others?  Send a suggestion! 

The Pendle Witches. <http://www.pendlewitches.co.uk/content.php?page=home>.  Some records of confessions. 

Hgman, Hans. "The Torsker Witch Trial of 1675 and the Clergyman Hornaues." <http://www.algonet.se/~hogman/witch trial.htm>. Description of that hunt. 

Hannan, James. "The Decline and End of Witch Trials in Europe." <http://www.bede.org.uk/decline.htm>.  Long essay by an English convert to Roman Catholicism.

Hartt, Cathy. "Early American Witches: Mary Estey, Rebecca Nurse, Sarah Cloyse and Elizabeth Hartt." <http://pearllakehist.com/witch.html>. Started from family history by a nurse-midwife. 

"Walpurga Hausmnnin." <http://ladyofspiders.wordpress.com/2007/10/19/walpurga-hausmannin/>. Translation from notice in Fugger report of 1587, seems to be copied from <http://www.shanmonster.com/witch/witches/hausmannin.html>.

"Witches: Myth and Reality." <http://greyfalcon.us/From Skeptic vol.htm>. Various essays about witchcraft and Wicca, along with a few lurid pictures.

David Hawkes, Postmodern essay in economics and witches <http://emc.eserver.org/1-4/hawkes.html> Faust Among the Witches: Towards an Ethics of Representation

Parent, Maggie. "Burning Times." <http://www.essortment.com/all/informationburn_rjpa.htm>. Very brief essay for general info.

Knowles, George. "A History of the Malleus Maleficarum." <http://www.controverscial.com/Malleus Maleficarium.htm>.  Long essay with some pictures, followed by links to matters of Wicca and witchcraft. 

"A True Account of What Happend in the Kingdom of Sweden." Giornale Nuovo. <http://www.spamula.net/blog/2005/08/a_true_account_of_what_happend.html>.  Description of and a few quotes and pictures from Glanvill. 

Newgate Calendar.  Mary Bateman <http://www.exclassics.com/newgate/ng500.htm>; Annewill burning picture <http://www.exclassics.com/newgate/annewill.gif>;

Gunnar Heinsohn Otto Steiger "Witchcraft, Population Catastrophe and Economic Crisis in Renaissance Europe: An Alternative Macroeconomic Explanation − With an Appendix by John M. Riddle"
<http://www.geocities.com/funnyguy_35/6IKSF31.heins-steiger.witchcraft.pdf>. Blames the hunts on birth control. 

Shea, John. "The Immeasurable Curiosity of Edward Peters." <http://www.upenn.edu/gazette/0503/shea.html>.  Brief feature biography of a major scholar. 

"Study of witch hunts Recent Developments in the Study of The Great European Witch Hunts" <http://shopgirl142001.tripod.com/melissaswiccansite/id17.html> Perceptive review of some scholarship, esp. critical of Barstow, by a young Neopagan.

Christianity the Religion of Love <http://www.brokenhearted.us/mimchrist.htm> amateur site critical of the inquisition, with anachronistic pictures.


Martyrs Mirror Images <http://www.bethelks.edu/mla/holdings/scans/martyrsmirror/>. engravings by Jan Luiken.

"Archive for the Pre-1800 Category." Sexy Witch. <http://sexywitch.wordpress.com/category/pre-1800/>.  A few classic pictures of witches with useful and perceptive analysis.  Most of the site is devoted to later popular images of sexy witches, although the author puts them in cultural context.

Satan in the Groin: Exhibitionist Art on medieval churches <http://www.beyond-the-pale.org.uk/index.htm>.

"NSFW Gallery: Sex Science From Da Vinci to MRIs." <http://www.wired.com/culture/lifestyle/multimedia/2008/04/gallery_bonk> an illustration of the devil/succubus.


General Sites | Specific Topics | Geographical Topics | Salem Sites | Historical Sources  
Links are arbitrarily ranked in rough order of usefulness, from top to bottom, within each category.
See also Courses about the Witch Hunts!

For witch links to German language sites, click here.    

Ten Theories about the Causes of the Witch Hunts

Ten Common Errors and Myths about the Witch Hunts


Annotated Bibliography

Suffer your own persecution!
Try a witch hunt simulation:  

Annotated Links
Referenced by Intute: Social Sciences.

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URL: http://departments.kings.edu/womens_history/witchlinks.html
Original Posting: 31 October 2001
Last Revision: 16 March 2009
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