Queen Elizabeth I of England
(b. 1533, r. 1558 - d. 1603)
Born in 1533 to Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn, she was Queen of England from 1558 to her death in 1603. She inherited the throne after the death of her half-sister, Queen "Bloody" Mary Tudor. Her reign is often called the Elizabethan or "Golden Age" because it was a time period of great advancement and achievement in England. She has been called an outstanding politician, orator, tactician, and musician. Elizabeth's reign was marked by her effective use of Parliament and the Privy Council, a small advisory body of the important state officials, and by the development of legal institutions in English counties. During her reign, Elizabeth unified a Protestant England against the Catholic Spanish and defeated the Spanish armada in 1588. She was responsible for English exploration of the New World and the flourishing of the economy, making England a world power. Her reign was also noted for the English Renaissance, an outpouring of poetry and drama. Elizabeth's court also became a center for poets, musicians, writers, and scholars.
Collins, Gail. "Just Look How Well She Governs." The New York
Times Magazine. 18 April 1999, 97.
This article is written to give a realistic view of Queen Elizabeth I. It writes of her as neither the most influential nor the most inspirational leader, but probably the millennium's best all-around figure. This article also focuses on this issues she faced while reigning, such as her dislike for religious extremism, the horror at the cost of war, and a strong interest in balanced budgets. This article is very useful in learning about the struggles and achievements of Queen Elizabeth I.
McGeary, Johanna. "Queen Elizabeth I." Time. 31 December
This article gives a short, to-the-point biography of Queen Elizabeth I. It also focuses on Elizabeth's refusal to marry due to the fact that she did not want to give up power. The article states that as a ruler Elizabeth faced many issues such as the financial situation of England and the Catholic threat. This article is very brief but is also very descriptive of Elizabeth's life. It is recommended for those who already have knowledge about Queen Elizabeth I
Woodward, Jennifer. "Images of a Dead Queen." History Today.
Nov 1997, 18-23.
This article focuses on the funeral of Queen Elizabeth I. The author examines how visual images of the dead Queen played a key role in her funeral. The author writes about the statue of the Queen during the funeral procession, which directed the collective emotional response back toward the dead Elizabeth and was deliberately used to create an impression of community feeling. Also included in this article is the way in which the funeral ritual was used to smooth the succession process.
U-X_L Biographies. "Elizabeth I." Gale Group. <http://www.galegroup.com/freresrc/womenhst/elizabe.htm>
(November 17, 2000).
This website includes a very narrow biography of Queen Elizabeth's life. It focuses on her family history and how Queen Elizabeth came to power and also the conflicts she faced while on the throne. This article also contains information on the why Elizabeth's reign is best remembered for extraordinary achievements.
Jokinen, Anniina. "Elizabeth I." Luminarium. (27 Sept.
This website provides a complete biography of Elizabeth's life. It is very informative about her life and her works. It also contains a collection of essays and articles about Elizabeth. There are also links to an image gallery and additional sources. This website is recommended for those who are inexperienced about Queen Elizabeth I.
Original written in 1998
Revised by Karen Woods, 2000 November
Last Revision: 2005 January 14
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