HIST 2220
German and Austrian History 1815-1945

Webster University Vienna Summer
May 17-July 9 2004
Monday, Wednesday, 11:15 a.m.-1:15 p.m.

Prof. Pavlac
U.S. Mail Address:
History Department
King's College
Wilkes-Barre, PA 18711
e-mail: bapavlacATkings.edu

DescriptionCourse Objectives | Class Schedule | Texts | Course Requirements | Exam Questions | Links

1. Description

This course in Modern European History presents a survey of the political and cultural development of Europe from the fall of Napoleon to the fall of Hitler, focusing on the roles played by the German peoples whose descendants now live in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. At the core of this period is "The German Problem:" namely, what political structures should govern the German peoples and their neighbors in the center of the European Continent? 
Themes include problems of unification and division, social adjustments to constitutional democracy and the rise of Fascism, rule over different ethnic groups and racism, social commentary in the arts and literature, economic and military competition between neighboring European powers, and the German attempt to dominate the European continent in World War I and World War II.

2. Incoming Competency

This course requires the ability to listen, discuss, read and write in English at the college level.  Students will evaluate both primary and secondary sources.  While no course prerequisites are required, a familiarity with European history would be helpful.  

3. Course Objectives

Objectives for the student:

  1. To identify the major events, persons and ideas of the history of 19th-, and early 20th-century Germany, Europe and the West.
  2. To develop concepts and methods which give an understanding of what influenced the attitudes and behavior of major participants in political situations.
  3. To read primary and secondary sources and explain their significance to relevant historical problems.
  4. To practice critical and analytical skills on historical controversies.
  5. To identify and analyze significant problems and situations as they relate to the current issues and the investigation of history.

Goals for the student:

  1. To develop a wider perspective which recognizes the political, economic and cultural interdependence of differing societies and people, and which encourages a more inclusive view of the human experience.
  2. To heighten awareness of the specific contributions and perspectives of diverse members of society.
  3. To appreciate the social, economic, cultural and political developments of German Europe to our present culture and World History.
  4. To understand the influence of the past on contemporary events and problems, or, in other words, to develop "Historical Mindedness."

General Learning Outcomes for the student:

In addition to the more content related objectives described above, this course has some general liberal learning goals. Successful completion of this course is expected to help improve your ability

  1. To manage information, which involves sorting data, ranking data for significance, synthesizing facts, concepts and principles.
  2. To understand and use organizing principles or key concepts against which miscellaneous data can be evaluated.
  3. To differentiate between facts, opinions and inferences.
  4. To frame questions in order to more clearly clarify a problem, topic or issue.
  5. To compare and contrast the relative merits of opposing arguments and interpretations, moving between the main points of each position.
  6. To organize your thoughts and communicate them clearly and concisely in a written form and oral presentations.
  7. To obtain practice in selecting and presenting information and arguments within a restricted environment, especially the limitations of time in exams.

4.  Class Schedule:

All topics and assignments on the schedule are tentative; the instructor may change them at his discretion. 

Week 1
May 17
Week 1
May 19
Modern History and the German Problem Alter, pp. ix-13       
Week 2
May 24
Vormärz Hndts Holy Alliance, Holy Alliance; Alter, pp. 14-57 Congress of Vienna  
Week 2
May 26
Revolutions of 1848 Hndts Carlsbad Decrees, Anthems Encyclopedia  
Week 3
May 31
The Unification of Germany under Prussia  Hndt Ems Telegram; Alter, pp. 48-72   Sign up for Nazi Revolution article due
Week 3
Jun 2
German Unification and the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary Hndt Constitutional Structures  Sissiweb  
Week 4
Jun 7
Turn of the Century Austria-Hungary  Hndt Erfurt Program; Alter, pp. 72-77; Hitler in Vienna   Discussion of Hitler in Vienna
Week 4
Jun 9
The Second German Empire     Midterm EXAM
Week 5
Jun 14
The Great War  Hndt Timetable to War; Alter, pp. 78-92 Trenches on the Web  
Week 5
Jun 16
The Great War and its Aftermath  Hndts Zimmerman Note, 14 pts, Armistice, Timetable to Peace Weimar Game  Hitler in Vienna Paper
Week 6
Jun 21
The Nazi Revolution  Alter, pp. 93-99; The Nazi Revolution Nazi Germany Study Guide/Oral Report
Week 6
Jun 23
The Nazi Revolution   Propaganda Discussion of The Nazi Revolution
Week 7
Jun 28
World War II  Alter, pp. 99-111  World War II  
Week 7
Jun 30
The End of the Third Reich   Museum of ToleranceHolocaust  
Week 8
July 5
The German Problem since 1945  Alter, pp. 112-144 Return
Week 8
July 7
Final Exam     Final EXAM

5. Required Texts

The required readings are intended both to provide you with important factual and background information before class and to be used as review and reference works afterwards. Before class, you will read the chapters or pages assigned according to the class schedule, section 4. Not all topics in the books will be covered in class, but you are responsible for them on the exam and in class discussion.

The instructor may give quizzes to test your reading and comprehension.

DescriptionCourse Objectives | Class Schedule | Texts | Course Requirements | Exam Questions | Links

6. Course Requirements

A. Grading Criteria

You earn your grade through work done for this course.  
It is your responsibility to understand why you have achieved a certain grade, and what steps you can take to maintain or improve your grade.  You are encouraged to consult with the professor both before and after exams and written assignments.

For more information see your Student Handbook and the following grading policy. For your protection, in case of errors in recording, you should keep copies of all exams and assignments until you have received notice of your grade.  Any and all materials done for this course may become the property of the professor, who may use them for assessment, evaluative, scholarly, or research purposes. 

Your final grade will be based on a percentage (above 90%=A, 80%=B, etc.) of the sum of the following points: 10-20 for each quiz or in-class discussion/project and paper evaluation; 100 for your Hitler's Vienna paper;  100 for your Article oral report and study guide; 100 for the midterm exam, 150 for the final exam; and 100 for your class performance and attendance.

B. Class Participation & Attendance:

Participation and attendance are necessary because lecture and discussion provide the essentials for achieving class goals and objectives. Thus a portion of your grade (about 15%) will depend on your in-class performance. You are required to attend each class, arrive on time, remain attentive, respond to questions, ask questions and participate in any in-class projects.  Any classes missed by the instructor must be rescheduled.  

Lectures may be recorded with the instructor's permission, although the tapes must be erased after the exams.

The instructor will regularly take attendance. A student's grade will be reduced by 1/2 letter for each full week of class missed.  Any student who misses three or more classes will automatically flunk.  Consult policies in your student handbook.  Absences due to college activities, emergency or extended illness may be excused by the appropriate college official, but extra work must be completed to make up for the absence, as determined by the instructor. After any absence, see the instructor as soon as possible.  You are responsible for making up missed work, requesting hand-outs and already returned assignments, or borrowing notes from other students. 

All students who have a learning disability, physical handicap and/or any other possible impediment to class participation and requirements should schedule an appointment with the instructor during the first week of class to discuss available accommodations.

If at some point during the semester you must discontinue the course, due to poor performance, illness or some other cause, be sure to follow proper procedures for withdrawal.

Be aware of the academic honesty policy concerning cheating and plagiarism, and your moral, ethical and legal obligation only to submit work completed by you yourself.
For more information see, URL: <http://departments.kings.edu/history/honesty.html>.

C. Exams

You will take one mid-term exam and a final exam, which is comprehensive, as scheduled.

Both exams will consist of short identifications quizzing knowledge of detail and significance, and essays testing your understanding of the course material through logical presentation of facts and explanation of historical trends. For a sample exam, see section V, B.

To study for the exams you should regularly, at least once a week, review your class notes, especially for identifications drawn from the overhead outline. You should also compare and contrast these notes with your textbook and other readings. For a sample exam, see below.

Only paper from the instructor is to be used. Please write legibly, in ink. Again, note the academic honesty policy.

Sample Exam:

Write your name only on the first exam page.

I. Identifications (30%, 10 pts. each; 15 min.): for 3 (THREE) of the following, on the provided lined paper, briefly, in a few sentences or a short paragraph, describe the person, idea or event (including dates and places) and explain their historical significance.  The following are examples.
Archduke Johann von Habsburg Carlsbad Decrees Metternich Deutschland ueber Alles Emperor Franz Josef
Bismarck Ausgleich Franco-Prussian War Zollverein Radetzky
Archduke Franz Ferdinand King Ludwig II of Bavaria Kaiser Wilhelm II Battle of Verdun 14 Points
Treaty of Versailles appeasement Gleichschaltung Night of the Long Knives Dachau
Wunderwaffen Blitzkrieg Battle of Stalingrad Auschwitz Normandy Invasion

II. Regular Essay : for two of the following, on the provided paper, write a clear, legible essay, being sure to plan your answer and to use specific details from lectures, discussion and readings.

1. Discuss Metternich's policies toward Germany and Europe from the Congress of Vienna to his fall in 1848. What was his role in foreign affairs? What did he try to achieve throughout Germany? What was his impact on Austria?

2. Discuss how culture and philosophy of the Vormärz period reflected or influenced nationalism. Be sure to consider the attitudes of different social classes and groups, the impact of government, and the individual aims of artists and thinkers.

3. Discuss the role of the industrial revolution on Europe and Germany. What impact did it have on the economy, politics and society? What were the various kinds of socialisms? How did governments try to cope with the tensions created by industrialization and socialism?

4. Discuss the revolutions of 1848-9. What were the origins of the revolutionary movements? How did events unfold? What were the goals of the revolutionaries and how did they fail in Germany, Prussia, Austria and Hungary? What were the consequences of the revolutions?

5. Discuss the unification of the 2nd German Empire and the exclusion of Austria. What were the origins of the ideas of unifications? How did events unfold? What were the roles of foreign powers like Italy and France? What was the role of Bismarck? What were the consequences of the unification for Germany, Austria and Europe?

6. Explain the origins of World War One. How did industrialization, economic and political expansion, European national and international problems provide long term causes? How did the Balkans create further tensions? What immediate events caused the outbreak of fighting and its expansion to include so many countries?  How did the origins contribute to the Central Powers'  loss of the war?

7. Explain the problems with the Paris Peace Treaties which ended World War I. What difficulties were involved in their creation? What political problems did they fail to solve or newly create? What long term affects did they have on international relations and domestic problems of both the former Allies and Germany and Austria?

8. Discuss the Nazi Revolution.  How do the Nazis have roots in history?  How did they take power, and what were the roles of Hitler and the German elites?  What was its social impact?  Be sure to use specific sources from the Mitchell text.

9. Discuss the historical significance of the Final Solution/Shoah/ Holocaust. Be sure to consider its origins, the experiences of its victims, the resistance by Jews, the actions of its perpetrators, the roles of Gentiles, and visions of other possibilities.

10. Explain Hitler's failure to win World War II. What were his preparations for war? What were the major successes he achieved early in the war? What were his and mistakes? What brought on the ultimate defeat of the Axis?

III. Comprehensive Essay: for the following, on the provided paper, write a clear, legible essay, being sure to plan your answer and to use specific details from lectures, discussion and readings. Review the German Problem from 1815 to 1945. Particularly evaluate the solutions offered by Metternich, Bismarck, Franz Josef, Wilhelm II, Stresemann, Dolfuß, and, finally, Hitler.

D. In-class projects

Regularly through the term we will have in-class discussions and projects. You are required to have read before class the appropriate material (as listed on the class schedule, section 4, or otherwise assigned by the instructor) and be prepared to discuss and write about it with the instructor or in small groups.

You will be evaluated by short quizzes or written reports done in-class or after class, worth between 10 and 20 points each.

E. Major Paper

Topic: Hitler’s and Today’s Vienna
I. Purpose: 
Vienna is a city with a significant cultural and historical legacy which you should understand better. Thus you will read carefully, manage information, evaluate different historical viewpoints, reflect on your own experiences, organize your thoughts and present them in a clear, coherent and interesting narrative. You will also gain expertise and knowledge about an important city in Europe.
II. Procedure: 

  1. Read the book by Sydney J. Jones, Hitler in Vienna 1907-1913: Clues to the Future. Note specific arguments about Vienna and its culture and how it interacted with the young Hitler
  2. Drawing on specific viewpoints and pieces of information, consider the effect of Vienna upon you. Be sure to focus on a variety of issues, such as the jobs, economy and advertising, government leaders and structures, political conflicts, class, social services, living conditions, cuisine, art, culture, entertainers, ideological viewpoints, and/or education. 
  3. Be prepared to discuss the book on June 7.
  4. Write a paper of 2500 words that compares and contrasts Hitler and his experiences of Vienna a century ago with your experiences of Vienna today. In addition to the relevant class texts, you must cite at least 4 professional secondary books or articles other than Hitler in Vienna; and 4 contemporary sources (interviews, websites, current newspapers or magazines). While other sources must be cited in Turabian format, you may cite Hitler in Vienna with only the page number in parentheses. Your paper should have a cover page with the title and your name;  your name should not be listed anywhere else on the paper.  Your paper should be word-processed.  
    Your paper will be evaluated on your selection of key points from the text about Hitler’s experiences, your use of other sources to add depth and context both to Hitler’s Vienna and contemporary Vienna, your analysis of contemporary Vienna, your of organization of the essay, and the clarity of your writing. 
  5. Write, re-write, polish and proofread your paper, and turn it in on the due date. 

F. Major Project:

Topic: The Nazi Revolution
I. Purpose: 
The Nazi takeover of Germany and Austria has many facets and ramifications. In order to understand this process you will read articles by various historians, and understand their debates. Thus you will read carefully, manage information, evaluate different historical viewpoints, organize your thoughts and sum them up in a brief oral report and study guide. 
II. Procedure: 

  1. Look over the book Allan Mitchell, ed., The Nazi Revolution. Choose one article you want to focus on, then sign up for that article before or after class on the list provided by the instructor, before May 31.
  2. Read the entire book. Note carefully how your chosen article reflects and fits in with the various historical perspectives. 
  3. Prepare a one-page study guide, word-processed, which includes the following key points: 
    #1 At the top of the page write “Study Guide by your name”. Then immediately below, give the full bibliographic citation (Kershaw, Ian, “The Hitler Myth,” pp. 88-92 in Mitchell, Allan, ed. The Nazi Revolution. Problems in European Civilization. 4th Ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1997; reprinted from Kershaw, Ian. The ‘Hitler Myth’: Image and Reality in the Third Reich. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. 
    #2 List the author’s thesis, both in a direct quote from the text (citing the page), then in a sentence using own words.
    #3 In a sentence each, describe at least three details (people, events, documents, ideas, etc.) that support the author’s thesis.
    #4 Explain in a brief paragraph how the author fits into the general discussion, especially noting any comparisons or contrasts with other authors in the Mitchell text. 
    Feel free to contact the instructor before or after class or by e-mail if you have questions. 
    Your guide will be evaluated on your accuracy in expressing the point of the article, the clarity of your information selection and summaries, your neatness and brevity of your material, and your depth of knowledge revealed by how you put the author into context. 
  4. On June 21, pass out copies of your study guide to the class, then, in an oral presentation of just a few minutes length, cover the highlights.  
  5. In class on June 23, be prepared to discuss in class all of the articles in the Mitchell text. 

G. Deadlines:

Meeting due dates are an important aspect of written assignments. Papers should be handed in to the instructor, by you yourself, at the beginning of class on the dates assigned (see class schedule, section VIII). Unless special arrangements have been made, no late papers or assignments will be accepted, which means no credit (zero).

7. Links


"Habsburg Source Texts Archive." Habsburg: A H-Net Discussion Network. <http://www.h-net.org/~habsweb/sourcetexts/>.

"19th Century Germany and Austria." Internet Modern History Sourcebook. <http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook22.html>.

"World War I." Internet Modern History Sourcebook. <http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook38.html>.

"Nazism." Internet Modern History Sourcebook. <http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook43.html>.

"Nazi and East German Propaganda Page." Calvin College. <http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/>.

"World War II." Internet Modern History Sourcebook. <http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook45.html>.

"Holocaust." Internet Modern History Sourcebook. <http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook44.html>.


"The Encyclopedia of Austria." AEIOU. <http://www.aeiou.at/aeiou>.

"European Maps," Europe 66, Introduction to Modern Europe, Temple University. <http://astro.temple.edu/~barbday/Europe66/resources/maps.html>.

German Culture. <http://www.germanculture.com.ua/index.html>.

Professor Gerhard Rumpel.  "Lectures." A History of Modern Germany. Western New England College. <http://mars.acnet.wnec.edu/~grempel/courses/germany/lectures.html>.

Rafael Scheck. "Lecture Notes: Germany and Europe, 1871-1945." Colby College <http://www.colby.edu/personal/r/rmscheck/Contents.html>.


"The Congress of Vienna." The Open Door Website. <http://www.saburchill.com/history/chapters/empires/0032f.html>.

James Chastain. "Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions." <http://www.ohiou.edu/~Chastain/index.htm>.

Rob Young, "Sissi, Elizabeth of Wittelsbach."  Sissiweb. <http://www.sissiweb.net/ew.html>.

Sigmund Freud in Vienna. Sigmund Freud Museum.  <http://www.freud-museum.at/e/index.html>.

Mike Iaverone. "World War I: Trenches on the Web. <http://www.worldwar1.com/>.

"Weimar game":  <http://www.activehistory.co.uk/Miscellaneous/hotpots/gcse/weimar/game.htm>.

World War II Research Aid. <http://marina.fortunecity.com/reach/77/index.html>.

Simon Wiesenthal Reseach Center, "The Museum of Tolerance, Multi-Media Online Learning Center," Museum of Tolerance. <http://motlc.wiesenthal.org/index.html>.

Florida Center for Instructional Technology, "A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust," College of Education University of  South Florida. <http://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/Holocaust/>.

"Nazi Germany" The History Learning Site. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/Nazi%20Germany.htm>.

Stephan F. Szabo. "Return of the German Problem." American Institute for Contemporary German Studies. <http://www.aicgs.org/research/focus2002/szabo020504.shtml>.

DescriptionCourse Objectives | Class Schedule | Texts | Course Requirements | Exam Questions | Links

URL: http://departments.kings.edu/history/h2220.html
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Last Revision: 2004 April 22
Questions, Suggestions, Comments? e-mail bapavlacATkings.edu