Internet Sources:     

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

"OPEC Online." Official OPEC Homepage. URL: <>. (March 25, 2000).

This general organization website is the official website of OPEC. It contains general information of OPEC as well as up-to-date general meeting summaries. The site has all you need to know about OPEC from its beginnings to the present state of the organization.

"OPEC Overview." OPEC Fact Sheet. URL: <>. (March 25, 2000).

This factual government website offers a nice summary of what OPEC is all about. It gives oil production totals and quotas of all member countries from previous years . The site also has a total history of OPEC and how it came to be what it is today and incorprates an explanation of how pricing of oil is achieved.


Saddam Hussein

"Republic of Iraq: Ministry of Foreign Affairs." Republic of Iraq: Ministry of Foreign Affairs Website. URL: <>. (March 25, 2000).

This politically informative site contains a thorough biography of Saddam Hussein as well as excerpts from some of his speeches. The site also contains political information on Iraq and links to other related sites about Iraq. The site is browsable in English or Arabic.

"Saddam Hussein." Newsmaker Profiles. URL: <>. (March 25, 2000).

This commercial site is a subdirectory of the main CNN website and gives a biography of the life of Saddam Hussein and the events concerning him as a major political and militant figure in the Middle East. The site also contains a recent picture of the leader.


The Iran-Iraq War

"MILNET: Conflicts - Iran-Iraq." MILNET. URL: <>. (February 17,2000).

This commercial website contains information on the past conflicts between Iraq and its bordering nations.  These conflicts include the Iran-Iraq War and the Persian Gulf War.  The site briefly describes the events of the wars and also touches on the resulting effects.

"Iran-Iraq War." 1993. URL: <>. (February 17, 2000).

This comercial website is a very detailed look at the Iran-Iraq War.   The article goes through every step of the war from its beginnings to its very end.  The page is part of an information database about Iran and the events involving this Middle East nation.  It is a very informative article and it is also very impartial to both the Iranians and Iraqis.


Yom Kippur War

"The 1973 Yom Kippur War." Israel Record. URL: <>. (February 17,     2000).

This general organization website is a very informative site which contains the history of the Yom Kippur War as well as links to information on other wars involving the Israelis and the Arabs including the 1956 Sinai Campaign, the 1967 War, and the Lebanon War.   The site also has links to information on the areas in dispute during these wars.


"The Yom Kippur War." Mediterranean Basin Chronology. URL: <>. (March 25, 2000).

This educational site contains a very thorough historical account of the Yom Kippur War. The text is very detailed and explains each step of the war from armament to disarmament. It also contains a nice map of the regions involved in the war.


Persian Gulf War

O'hara, Scott. "", 1999. URL: <>. (February 17, 2000).

This commercial site focuses on the most recent war in the Middle East known as the Gulf War. It has links to information on timelines of the war, maps of the war, the nations involved, and casualties of the war. The site was created by a student named Scott O'hara and has grown into a staff of six contributors.

"World Reaction." Gulf War. URL:<>. (March 25, 2000).

This informative site contains valuable information on the basic ideas of the Gulf War including the causes and the effects. It is done in summary-type format which makes it easy to read and understand. The site also contains links to other Persian Gulf War sites containing pictures and essays about the war.


Yitzak Rabin

"Yitzak Rabin." Yitzak Rabin. URL: <>. (March 25, 2000).

This general organization site contains a life story of the late Prime Minister Yitzak Rabin. The essay starts from Rabin's birth and explains each major step in his life. The site is very simple but contains a good amount of information.

"Yitzak Rabin - 1922 - 1995: A Soldier who led from the front - but was shot in the back." Assassination of Yitzak Rabin. URL: <>. (March 25, 2000).

This informative site contains a descriptive life story of Yitzak Rabin and an account of his assassination. The site is very detailed and contains much information on the events which led to the late prime minister's death.


Suez Crisis

"Suez Crisis." FAS Military Analysis Network. URL: <>. (February 17, 2000).

This general organization website gives in great detail the history of the Suez Crisis.   It describes the steps which brought this conflict into being and the events which led to its resolution.  The site is linked to the main FAS Military Analysis page which gives information on many other military efforts throughout history.

"The Suez Crisis and the British Empire (July 1956)." Post-imperial and Post-colonial Literature in English. URL: <>. (February 17,2000).

This British website contains a detailed description of the entire Suez Crisis.   In addition to this, the site incorporates much of the British side to this conflict.  Descriptions of events, people, and resolutions regarding this conflict are thoroughly emphasized.  This site is part of an educational resource project at Hewitt School in Norwich.


Palestine Problem

"Middle East History and References." Middle East Web. URL: <>. (February 17,2000).

This general organization website contains a timeline with links to the major events in Middle East history from 1915 to present including the Palestine conflict. It also contains links to various maps of the Middle east including maps which describe the history of the Middle East from before the time of the Hebrews to 1914.

"Open directory- Society: History: Middle East." Feb. 7, 2000. DMOZ Open Directory Project. URL: <>. (February 17, 2000).

This general organization website is an open directory which contains links to the ancient history of the Middle East, the wars occurring in the Middle East including the wars caused by the Palestine conflict, and also links to information on individual Middle Eastern countries. Additionally, the site contains other links to more reference sites on the internet.


Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)

"The PLO." The Palestine History Website. URL: <>. (March 25, 2000).

This informative site contains information on the history of the PLO. It describes how it was created and its purpose to the Palestinians. The site also contains links to other Palestine related sites and even links to other Middle Eastern country information sites.

"The PLO: Background Briefing." Background on the PLO. URL: <>. (March 25, 2000).

This informative site contains a background briefing on the PLO. It contains links to sites containing information on the emblem of the PLO and the PLO's original charter which explains it's first viewpoints on the topic of the Israeli nation. The site is under construction and should contain much more information as time progresses.


Yasser Arafat

"Yasser Arafat." President Yasser Arafat. URL: <>. (March 25, 2000).

This commercial site offers a look at the total life of Yasser Arafat. It contains a descriptive biography of the leader and has a convenient timeline of events in which Arafat was involved. Also, the site contains links to other resources relating to Arafat's life.

"Yasser Arafat." Newsmaker Profiles. URL: <>. (March 25, 2000).

This commercial site is a subdirectory of the main CNN website and gives an informative biography of the life of Yasser Arafat and the events concerning him as a political figure in the Middle East. The site also contains a recent picture of the leader.


Literary Sources:

Brown, L. Carl, From Medina to Metropolis; Heritage and Change in the Near Eastern
City. Princeton, N.J.: Darwin Press, 1973.

This scholarly and informative book relates the idea of urbanization to the region of the
Middle East.  The book describes the process Middle Eastern villages took to develop into
modern day cities.  The book is based on papers presented at a urbanization conference
and also focuses on the Arab-Israeli conflict which took place from 1948-1967.

Draper, Theodore, Israel and World Politics; Roots of the Third Arab-Israeli War. New
York, N.Y.: Viking Press,1968.

This factual book relates to the causes of the Third Arab-Israeli War in 1967.  It focuses
on the Palestine crisis and how that event led up this war and the wars before this one.  It
also describes the wars and how the United Nations dealt with this problem to try to
achieve peace.

Drioton, Etienne, Religions of the Ancient East. New York, N.Y.: Hawthorn Books,

Religions of the Ancient East is a factual book which illustrates the ancient religions of the
Middle East and how they evolved into the religions which are found there today.  The
book focuses on the religious practices of  the Egyptian Empire and proceeds to describe
other ancient religions of the Middle East.

Eaton, Richard Maxwell, Islamic History as Global History, Washington, D.C. : American
Historical Association, c1990.

This series of essays describes centers around the Islam religion and it's history.  The
essays describe how Islam came to be and the civilizations this religion created.  It also
takes a look at all of the Islam countries and there way of life including customs within the

Elkordy, Abdul-Hafez M., Crisis of Diplomacy: The Three Wars and After. San Antonio,
T.X.: Naylor Co, 1971.

This book describes how the United Nations dealt with the Palestinian problem in the
Middle East.  It mentions the wars which occurred after WWII resulting from the Arabs
and Jews both being promised Palestine by the British.  The book also looks at the years
after these wars and discusses the decisions the United Nations made to keep peace in the
Middle East.

Fritzsimons, M. A., Empire to Treaty; Britain and the Middle East in the 20th Century.
Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1964.

Britain's lasting effect on the Middle East is one of the biggest influences in the Middle
East's history.  This factual book describes the relations between Britain and the Middle
East and the Palestine problem.  The book also touches on the political structure of the
Middle East and how it has changed over the years.

Heathcote, Nina, Peace-keeping by U.N. Forces, From Suez to the Congo. New York,
N.Y.: Preager, 1963.

This informative book focuses on the United Nations' attempted to keep peace in the
Middle East and Africa.  It discusses the Palestine problem and also other African
uprisings and issues which needed to be settled.  The book was originally published for the
Center of International Studies at Princeton University.

Perry, Vernon J., and Yapp Malcolm, War, Technology, and Society in the Middle East.
London; NewYork, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1975.

This book touches upon the military, art, and science of the Middle East.  It describes its
history and how these characteristics of the region progressed through time.  The book
discusses the forms of art throughout the Middle East's history and also describes the
scientific advances made in that time.