"...the application of concepts drawn from the developing fields of management, sociology, social work, psychology, as well as the use of modern technology in policing and suggest that police officers should have a college education..."
August Vollmer (1916)
""There is no society that is not confronted with the problem of criminality. Its form changes; the acts thus characterized are not the same everywhere; but, everywhere and always, there have been men who have behaved in such a way as to draw upon themselves penal repression. There is, then, no phenomenon that represents more indisputably all the symptoms of normality, since it appears closely connected with the conditions of all collective life."
Emile Durkheim (1895)