General Science

A major program in General Science is available to students whose goals and interests require a diversity of exposure to science disciplines and flexibility in selection of science courses. The major in General Science is appropriate for students who are preparing for careers in the health professions (Pre-Medical, Pre-Dental, Pre-Veterinary, etc.), for those who wish to enter graduate school programs at the Masters or Doctoral degree levels, for those students who wish to attain Teacher Certification, and those preparing for employment in a variety of science or science-related career areas.

The General Science Major can be tailored toward specific career goals and/or combined with other disciplines outside of science where such integrations are appropriate or required for postgraduate career plans. If current or future students have any question about the General Science major at King's College please contact Dr. Ann Yezerski, the Program Director.

General Science Planner 2011-2012 (PDF File)
General Science Planner 2012-2013 (PDF File)
General Science with Education Planner 2011-2012 (PDF File)
General Science with Education Planner 2012-2013 (PDF File)
General Science Newsletter (PDF File)

Degree Requirements
BIOL 110   Freshman Seminar (1)
BIOL 113   Evolution and Diversity with Lab (4)
BIOL 210   Organisms and Their Ecosystems with Lab (4)
CHEM 113 General Chemistry I (4)
CHEM 114 General Chemistry II (4)
PHYS 111 General Physics I (4)
PHYS 112 General Physics II (4)

One of the following groups:
1. MATH 125 Calculus (4)
MATH 128 Introduction to Statistics, Data Analysis and Applications to Life Science (4)
2. MATH 129 Analytic Geometry and Calculus I (4)
MATH 130 Analytic Geometry and Calculus II (4)

The Sophomore/Junior Diagnostic Project and Senior Integrated Assessment in the area of chosen minor concentration, or in an alternative area, approved by the Chair of the Department of the area of minor concentration and by the Program Director may be required. If a student completes the requirements for more than one minor, only one Sophomore/Junior project and one Senior Integrated Assessment need be completed. The choice may be made by the student in consultation with his/her advisor(s).

Each concentration area requires at least 60 total credits in science and/or math beyond the required credits listed below.
1. Biology
A minimum of four (4) Biology electives approved by the departmental advisor
BIOL 370 Biology Seminar (2) S/JDP
BIOL 490 Biological Research (4)SIA

2. Chemistry
CHEM 241 Organic Chemistry I (4)
CHEM 242 Organic Chemistry II (4)
CHEM 243 Analytical Chemistry (4)
CHEM 493, 494 Senior Colloquium (1,1) SIA
One Chemistry elective, excluding CHEM 197 and CHEM 351

3. Mathematics
MATH 127 Logic and Axiomatics (3)
MATH 128 Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis (4)
MATH 129 Analytic Geometry and Calculus I (4)
MATH 130 Analytic Geometry and Calculus II (4)
MATH 250 Linear Algebra (4) SIA
MATH 490 Junior Seminar (1) S/JDP

4. Neuroscience
CORE 154 Psychological Foundations (3)
NEUR 211 Neuroscience I (3)
NEUR 212 Neuroscience II (3) S/JDP
NEUR 310 Neuroscience Methods (3) SIA
NEUR 480 Senior Seminar (3) SIA
Two of the following:
NEUR/PSYC 342 Drugs and Behavior (3)
NEUR/PSYC 346 Psychopharmacology (3)
NEUR/PSYC 348 Sensation and Perception (3)
NEUR/PSYC 349 Animal Behavior (4)
NEUR 390 Topical Seminar in Neuroscience

5. Environmental Studies
ENST 201 Environmental Studies I (4)
ENST 202 Environmental Studies II (4)
One of the following:
ENST 490 Independent Study in Environmental Issues (3)
ENST 499 Environmental Internship (3)
Three of the following:
CORE 265 Christian Environmental Ethics (3)
ENST 200 Earth and Space Science (3)
ECON 491 Economics of Women, Poverty, and the Environment (3)
HCA 211 Principles of Epidemiology (3)
ENST 452 Environmental Policy (3)
ENST 401 Special Environmental Topics A-F (3 or 4)
See Environmental Program section of catalog.
Elective courses in Science and/or Math to accumulate a minimum of 60 credits in Science and Math.

6. Molecular Biology
BIOL 450 DNA Science (4)
BIOL 451 RNA Science (4)
BIOL 330 Evolutionary Analysis and Bioinformatics (3)
Two of the following:
BIOL 326 Immunology (4)
BIOL 453 Systems Biology (4)
BIOL 336 Cell Biology (4)
BIOL 448 Microbiology (4)
Elective courses in Science and/or Math to accumulate a minimum of 60 credits in Science and Math.

7. Physics
PHYS 231 Modern Physics (4)
Three PHYS elective courses numbered 233 or higher (6-8)
One of the following mathematics sequences:
MATH 129 Analytic Geometry and Calculus I (4)
MATH 130 Analytic Geometry and Calculus II (4)
MATH 231 Analytic Geometry and Calculus III (4)
MATH 125 Calculus (4)
MATH 237 Mathematics for the Physical Sciences I (3)
MATH 238 Mathematics for the Physical Sciences II (3)

*Some courses required for certain minor programs will have prerequisites that must be fulfilled.

Course Descriptions
BIOL 110 — Freshman Seminar (1)
The Biology First Year Seminar is designed to introduce you to science at the college level.   To this end you will practice reading, comprehending, and communicating particularly about scientific writing.  You will also become familiar with biological research through being introduced to research projects underway at King’s College.  Throughout the course, students will learn how to best comprehend biological concepts and optimize their future education in the life sciences.

BIOL 113 — Evolution and Diversity (4)
This course will start with the basics of Mendelian inheritance.  A brief introduction to inheritance, sexual lifecycles, mitosis and meiosis, will lay the foundation for students to fully understand evolution of populations through natural selection and adaptation, the origin of species, and the history of life on Earth. Evolution will continue as a major theme throughout coverage of the diversity of life, focusing on shared and derived traits within taxa and highlighting relationships between form and function.

BIOL 210 — Organisms and Their Ecosystems (4)
The correlation between form and function will be emphasized at the organismal through ecosystem levels of biological organization.  The purpose of this course is two-fold: (1) to study the biophysical relationship between organisms within their ecosystem and (2) to study the biochemical relationship between systems within a given organism.   Balance and homeostasis between organisms within an ecosystem share similarities with balance and homeostasis between organ systems within a particular organism.  This course will be equally divided into three units: Ecology, Plant Form and Function, and Animal Form and Function.  

BIOL 213 — Cell and Molecular Biology (4)

This course will provide students with a foundation in cellular and molecular biology.  Topics will include chemical principles, metabolism, cell architecture, patterns of inheritance, cellular reproduction, molecular genetics, and a reintroduction to evolution, particularly how it relates to and is supported by the central dogma of biology.  While the scope of this course is broad, it will have a concentrated focus on metabolic and genetic principles.

BIOL 326 - Immunology (4)
Fundamentals of immunology, immunopathology, immunochemistry, and serology. Topics include: the immune system; structure, function, and formation of immunoglobulins; cellular and genetic basis of immune response; antigen-antibody reactions; the complement system; immunochemistry; hypersensitivity; transplantation; and methods in immunology. Laboratory exercises consist of methods to measure antibodies and the use of antibodies to detect other substances. Prerequisites: BIOL 224, CHEM 242, or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours.

BIOL 330 - Evolutionary Analysis and Bioinformatics (3)
Modern methods used to analyze evolutionary topics via genetics. The course will span micro-evolution to macro-evolution by studying the topics of population genetics and systematics. Modern manipulation of molecular genetic data in the field of bioinformatics is also addressed. Lecture time includes computer modeling of population genetics and manipulation of DNA data using current systematic and bioinformatics programs and websites. Prerequisite: BIOL 223, or permission of the instructor. 3 lecture hours.

BIOL 336 - Cell Biology (4)
Application of genetic and biochemical concepts to the rigorous analysis of the structure and function of cells. Special attention is devoted to the interactions between cells and between cells and the noncellular environment, signaling and response mechanisms and regulation of gene activity. Specific examples for illustration will be drawn from developmental contexts and disease states. The laboratory will use cell culture as a means of providing model systems to afford students experience with techniques used to elucidate cellular integration and regulation mechanisms. Alternate course. Prerequisites: BIOL 224, CHEM 242, or permission of the instructor. 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours.

BIOL 370 - Biology Seminar (2)
Biology Seminar is the setting for the Sophomore/Junior Diagnostic Project, a discipline-specific assignment required of students in all majors. The assessment is designed to serve as a diagnostic screening device to determine the ability of students to transfer information literacy, critical thinking and effective communication skills developed through the Core curriculum and major program to a selected question, case study, or project related to their major field of study. The Sophomore/Junior Diagnostic Project provides a process check for competency growth plans. The project is evaluated by department faculty, and feedback is provided to students by either the instructor in the designated course or by the individual student's academic advisor. The Sophomore/Junior Diagnostic Project helps students develop a clearer understanding of the expectations of faculty in their major field of study with respect to their ability to apply critical thinking skills and to communicate effectively. It also helps students to develop a better understanding of the specific criteria faculty use to judge work of students in their respective major fields of study. Prerequisites: BIOL 224 and CHEM 242, or permission of the instructor. 2 lecture/seminar hours.

BIOL 448 - Microbiology (4)
A study of microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, fungi, and other microbial forms. The morphology, physiology, ecology, evolution of these organisms, their pathogenesis, host responses, epidemiology, and control are discussed. Laboratory exercises illustrate morphology, growth, biochemical characteristics, identification and classification, microbial immunity, genetics and various laboratory techniques. Prerequisite: CHEM 242 or permission of the instructor. 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours.

BIOL 450 - Molecular Genetics: DNA Science (4)
Genetic structure and regulation of gene expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms: recombinant DNA technology; mutation/suppression; transcription/translation; DNA polymorphisms: Laboratory exercises include; RE digest and analysis, directional cloning using PCR, genomic DNA and plasmid isolation, site directed mutagenesis, gene fusions, DNA sequencing, DNA fingerprinting. Prerequisites: BIOL 224 and CHEM 242, or permission of the instructor. 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours.

BIOL 451 - Molecular Genetics: RNA Science (4)
Lectures focus RNA chemistry, isolation and manipulation; DNA replication; DNA repair; recombination; microarray technology; Lab exercises include: laboratory techniques for the extraction, purification and characterization of high quality RNA. Experiments utilizing the RNA include RT-PCR, Real Time-Quantitative PCR, and RNA interference. Prerequisite: BIOL 450, or permission of the instructor. 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours.

BIOL 453 - Systems Biology (4)
Systems Biology is a new field in biology that attempts to describe and correlate the wealth of information being created in the genomics era. The goal is to understand basic cellular pathways by tracking changes in the levels of protein, DNA and RNA, all at the same time. Methods for this course will include microarray analysis, 2D protein gel electrophoresis, genomic data manipulation, bioinformatics and correlation analysis. 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours

BIOL 490 - Biological Research I (4)
This course is the Biology Department's Senior Integrated Assessment course. Science is the process of scientific research; therefore, this course introduces biology majors to the process of scientific research. The student works in the research laboratory of a faculty member conducting original and independent scientific research. The culmination of the course is a written and oral presentation of a scientific report. Biology 490 is the required capstone course for all biology majors. Prerequisites: BIOL 223, 224, 370. 2 lecture and 2 three-hour laboratory sessions.

CHEM 113, 114 — General Chemistry I, II (4, 4)
Fundamental concepts and principles common to the various branches of chemistry. This includes descriptive chemistry, which deals in a systematic way with the more important elements and the structures, properties and reactions of their compounds. A balance between experiment and theory, between quantitative and qualitative aspects of the course material and between rigor and simplification is sought. Laboratory work emphasizes learning basic techniques, learning to manipulate and interpret numerical data and learning the relationship between experimental measurement and chemical theory through guided, independent work by the student. Primarily for students majoring in the natural sciences. Prerequisite: high school chemistry. 4 lecture-recitation and 3 laboratory hours for two semesters.

CHEM 197 — Early Research Experience in Chemistry (0-1)
An introduction to Chemical research under the supervision of a department faculty member. A written report is required. Freshmen chemistry majors may begin chemical research if they earn at least a B+ in CHEM 113 and B in CHEM 113L. Permission of the faculty member and the department chair is required.

CHEM 241, 242 — Organic Chemistry I, II (4, 4)
A study of elemental carbon and the properties, structures, reactions and syntheses of carbon compounds. Nomenclature, structure determination by spectrometric methods, reaction mechanisms and the relationship between structure and reactivity are among the topics covered along with the application of principles to the descriptive aspects of the subject. Laboratory work involves the synthesis of organic compounds, physical property measurements, separation and purification techniques, and the use of spectroscopic methods for compound identification. Prerequisite: CHEM 114. 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours for two semesters.

CHEM 243 — Analytical Chemistry (5)
An application of the principles of equilibrium, electrochemistry and spectrophotometry to quantitative chemical analysis. The laboratory utilizes gravimetric, volumetric, potentiometric, and spectrophotometric methods of analysis with an emphasis on the technique required to produce accurate and precise results. Prerequisite: CHEM 114. 3 lecture and 4 laboratory hours.

CHEM 351 — Chemical Information Science (1)
An introduction to the methods of chemical information retrieval and display. While hand searching of library materials is covered, CD-roM and on-line computer searching will be emphasized. Sources of chemical information on the Internet will be explored. Students will become familiar with both 2-D and 3-D molecular drawing and visualization software, and the interface of these programs with presentation and Internet packages. 1 lecture and 1 library/computer practicum per week.

CHEM 493, 494 — Senior Colloquium (1, 1)
The reading and synthesis of current research in the chemical literature. The student must prepare two seminars, one each semester, in two different areas of chemistry. These seminars are presented orally to the department faculty and students. The student is expected to answer questions based on material learned in completed courses but pertinent to the seminar topic. All senior Chemistry majors must attend seminars given by other students and visiting speakers. Pass/Fail.

MATH 125 — Calculus (4)
Topics include: equations and inequalities; polynomial, rational, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions; limits, continuity; derivatives; graphs; maxima and minima problems; growth and decay problems; antiderivatives; the definite integral; basic integration techniques; area between curves. Biological applications emphasized. Prerequisite: CORE 098 Mathematical skills. Closed to non-freshmen Mathematics majors.

MATH 127 — Logic and Axiomatics (3)
Topics include logic; inductive and deductive reasoning; direct and indirect proofs; proof by counter-example: set theory: axiom systems; consistency and independence of axiom systems; axiom system design. Prerequisite: CORE 098 Mathematical skills. Offered Fall semesters.

MATH 128 — Introduction to Statistics, Data Analysis, and
Applications to Life Science (4)

Basic methods of data analysis. emphasis on the use of logical reasoning and careful and precise communication in analyzing and presenting statistical data. Topics include displaying data graphically; measures of central tendency; measures of variability; general laws of probability; normal, t, chi-square, and F distributions; sampling distributions; confidence intervals; hypothesis testing; analysis of variance; two-way tables; use of statistical software. Biological applications are emphasized. Three 50-minute lectures and one 75-minute lab per week. Prerequisite: COre 098 Mathematical skills. Closed to students who have taken or who are currently taking MATH 126. Offered Fall semesters.

MATH 129 — Analytic Geometry and Calculus I (4)
The first calculus course in a three-course sequence. Intended primarily for chemistry, computer science, or mathematics majors. Topics include equations; inequalities; analytic geometry; trigonometric functions; an introduction to exponential and logarithmic functions; limits; continuity; derivatives; differentials; maxima and minima problems; graphing techniques; the definite integral. Prerequisite: Core 098 Mathematical skills. Offered Fall semesters.

MATH 130 — Analytic Geometry and Calculus II (4)
Topics include exponential and logarithmic functions; applications of the definite integral; techniques of integration; improper integrals; indeterminate forms; sequences; series. Prerequisite: MATH 129 or the approval of the department chairperson. Offered Spring semesters.

MATH 231 — Analytic Geometry and Calculus III (4)
Topics include polar coordinates; parametric equations; conics; solid analytic geometry; vectors; partial differentiation; multiple integration; vector fields; line integrals; Green’s Theorem. Prerequisite: MATH 130 or the approval of the department chairperson. Offered Fall semesters.

MATH 235 — Discrete Mathematics (3)
Topics include: Mathematical induction, recursion, graph theory, combinatorics, discrete probability, and matrix operations. Prerequisite: MATH 127 and MATH 130. Offered Fall semesters.

MATH 237 — Mathematics for the Physical Sciences I (3)
Topics include calculus beyond MATH 125, an introduction to linear algebra, including: systems of linear equations, matrices, and determinants; differential equations; and use of multivariable functions. The emphasis is on the applications to physical systems. Prerequisite: MATH 125 or the approval of the department chairperson. Offered Fall semesters.

MATH 238 — Mathematics for the Physical Sciences II (3)
Topics include calculus beyond MATH 125, linear transformations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, systems of differential equations, the Laplace transform, and the Fourier transform. The emphasis is on the applications to physical systems. Prerequisite: MATH 237. Offered Spring semesters.

MATH 250 — Linear Algebra (4)
Topics include vector spaces; linear transformations; matrices; systems of linear equations; determinants; eigenvectors and eigenvalues. Computers are used both computationally and graphically. Prerequisite: MATH 127 and MATH 231 or permission of department chairperson. Offered Spring semesters.

MATH 490 — Junior Seminar (1)
students rework and refine the small axiom system that they designed in MATH 127 (Logic and Axiomatics). The axiom system is then presented to the students and faculty of the Mathematics department during the presentation phase of the seminar. students are also strongly encouraged to present their systems at local Mathematical Association of America meetings and in other such forums. Prerequisite: MATH 127. Offered Spring semesters.

NEUR 211 — Neuroscience I (3)
Introduction to the Biological basis of behavior. emphasis is placed on an understanding of the neural substrates that underlie human behavior. Topics include neuroanatomy and neural communication; alterations in neurochemistry due to drug interactions; sensation and perception; movement and disorders of movement; Biology of mood disorders, schizophrenia, and autism.

NEUR 212 — Neuroscience II (3)
Topics include regulations of internal body states; hormones and behavior; emotional behavior and stress; neural substrates of learning and memory, including pathologies associated with dementia; Biological basis of language; introduction to human neuropsychology. This course includes the Neuroscience Program’s sophomore/junior diagnostic project. Students will present a written and oral report on an area of nervous system pathology. Prerequisite: NEUR 211.

NEUR 310 — Research Methods in Neuroscience (3)
This course is designed to familiarize the student with current research methods in Neuroscience as a preliminary step in designing an individual research project. emphasis will be placed on experimental design, data collection and analysis of results, and the use of APA format in reporting research. Students will choose an area of investigation, complete a literature review of the topic, and design a research project to be completed in the final semester of their senior year. To be taken in the fall semester of the senior year.

NEUR 342 — Drugs and Behavior (3)
drug abuse is our nation’s number one health and social problem. in this course, we will examine the use and abuse of drugs from many perspectives: social, legal, medical, pharmacological and psychological. Beginning with a basic coverage of how the brain controls behavior, we will look at how drugs interact with the brain to have such powerful effects on behavior. Topics will include the medical use of drugs (including over-the-counter and psycho-therapeutic drugs), the illegal abuse of drugs like heroin and cocaine, and the use and abuse of non-drugs like caffeine, nicotine and alcohol. Cross-listed as PSYC 342.

NEUR 346 — Psychopharmacology (3)

This course surveys what is currently known about the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders and the use of psychoactive drugs to treat them. Starting with the basics of the brain/ behavior relationship and principles of pharmacology, we will cover the symptoms and treatment of the affective disorders, anxiety disorders and the schizophrenias, among others. Also included will be the psychological aspects and pharmacotherapy of the neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s chorea and Alzheimer’s disease. Cross-listed as PSYC 346.

NEUR 348 — Sensation and Perception (3)
This course deals with how we construct a conception of physical reality from sensory experience. While the primary focus will be on vision and hearing, the chemical senses (taste and smell) the somatosenses (touch, temperature and vibration) will also be addressed. We will cover the anatomy and physiology of the various sensory receptors, the neural mechanisms of sensation, sensory representation in the brain, as well as the phenomenological experience of perception. Topics will include the ways in which illusions can fool our senses and what they tell us about how our sensory systems work. Cross-listed as PSYC 348.

NEUR 349 — Animal Behavior (4)
The study of behavior has become complex, requiring knowledge in more than one discipline. in this class students will learn about animal behavior from a physiological, developmental, functional, and evolutionary perspective. Areas of concentration will include behavioral genetics, communication, behavioral endocrinology, altruism, neurobiology, social behavior, sexual behavior, parental care, and human behavior. Lab activities will include both laboratory study and field work. Cross-listed as BIOL 349 and PSYC 349.

NEUR 390 — Special Topics in Neuroscience (3)
A course offered periodically, in an area of expertise by a member of the Neuroscience faculty. The course will concentrate on a topical area such as the neural substrates of learning and memory, neurodegenerative disorders, and neuropsychology. Junior standing. Prerequisite: NEUR 212.

NEUR 480 — Senior Seminar (3)
The senior seminar is the Neuroscience Program’s Senior integrated Assessment course. Students will engage in original research in a specific area of Neuroscience. The research project will be under the direction of a faculty member, and will include a written thesis and oral presentation. To be taken in the spring semester of the senior year.

ENST 200 — Earth and Space Science (3)
Introduction to the formation and function of the earth and other planets in the solar system. Emphasis is given to basic geology, meteorology and climatology associated with our planet. 3 lecture hours.

ENST 201 — Environmental Science I (4)
Introduction to concepts and principles of environmental science. Through a combination of field and laboratory experiences students will be introduced to methods for assessing and monitoring the environmental health of ecosystems. Topics for discussion include weather and climate, biodiversity, ecosystem management, energy transfer and balance, population growth, bioremediation, and environmental toxicology. 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours.

ENST 202 — Environmental Science II (4)
Introduction to the environmental issues and problems. Topics will include energy, global warming, water resources, toxic wastes, ozone depletion, and renewable and non-renewable resources. 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours.

ENST 401A-K — Special Environmental Courses (3-4)
Selected topics in environmental science/ studies. Courses A, B, E G, and J are primarily lecture format. Courses C, D, F, and K contain a significant lab and/or field component; courses H and I are week-long immersion courses. Topics include:
A) Conservation Biology (3) An introduction to the loss, restoration, and maintenance of the Earth’s biological diversity.
B) Wildlife Ecology and Management (3) The study of the interrelationships between wildlife and their environments with an emphasis on human management of wildlife resources.
C) Ecotoxicology (4) An introduction to the science that investigates the effects of pollutants and toxins on the ecology of individuals, populations and communities of organisms.
D) Wildlife Techniques (3) A field course designed to expose students to basic research techniques used in the study of wildlife.
E) Environmental Compliance (3) A course devoted to understanding and fulfilling the demands of environmental legislation and permitting.
F) Water Quality Analysis (3) A lab course that introduces students to the biological and chemical analysis of fresh water.
G) Tropical Ecology (3) An introduction to the interrelationships between organisms and their environments in the most biologically diverse ecosystems on the planet.
H) Chesapeake Bay Ecology (4) An immersion course focused on the history, geology, economy and ecology of the Chesapeake Bay, taught by King’s faculty in partnership with the Chesapeake Bay Foundation. Students will spend a week at the bay in a CBF residential facility.
I) Adirondack Park Ecology (4) Students spend a week with King’s faculty in the Adirondack Park at the Adirondack Ecological Center, studying the history, economy, and ecology of the Park.
J) Environmental Management (3) An introduction to the field of environmental management, including interviews with practicing environmental professionals.
K) Wetland Ecology & Delineation (3) A course focused on the interrelationships of wetlands and the methods used to delineate their boundaries.
Environmental majors are required to take ENST 201 and 202 as prerequisite courses for the ENST 401 courses. However, these prerequisites do not necessarily apply to students outside of the Environmental Program. Interested students should consult with the Environmental Program director. Some of these courses are cross-listed as BIOL 401.

ENST 452 – Environmental Policy (3)
An examination of the different facets of environmental policy. For more detail see the description for PS 452 in the Political Science section of this catalog.

ENST 490 — Independent Study in Environmental Issues (3-4)
This course can be completed with any faculty member involved in Environmental Studies, and can take the form of a senior thesis, community service, or research. Community service provides students with real world experience in a variety of fields within the broad area of environmental studies. Senior thesis or research allows students to explore specific problems and solutions relate to the environment. Prerequisite: ENST 370.

ENST 491 — Environmental Research (3-6)
Students participate in departmental research projects initiated by faculty. The students work under the direction of faculty conducting independent and original research.

ENST 499 — Internship (3-6)
A full semester or more of field experience designed to give students the opportunity to acquire experience and skills while working with practicing professionals. Students may choose from a variety of internships: government, consulting, research, not-for-profit organizations, business, industry, and other areas. Scheduling is to be arranged with internship advisor. Approval of Program Director required. Prerequisite: ENST 370. A minimum GPA of 2.50 is required

PHYS 111 — General Physics I (4)
Classical Physics: Mechanics and heat. This first semester of a two-semester sequence is a calculus-based introduction to the laws of motion of Galileo and Newton, the fundamentals of energy, gravitation, and orbital motion. Prerequisite or Co-requisite: MATH
121, 125, or 129 or permission of the instructor. 3 lecture hours, 1 problem hour and 3 laboratory hours.

PHYS 112 — General Physics II (4)
Classical Physics: Waves, electromagnetism, electric circuits, optics; introduction to mod- ern physics. Prerequisite: PHYS 111 or permission of the instructor. 3 lecture hours, 1 problem hour, and 3 laboratory hours.

PHYS 231 — Modern Physics (4)
Introduction to modern physics: special relativity, quantum physics, waves and particles, and atomic and nuclear physics. Prerequisites: MATH 130 and PHYS 112 or permission of the department. 3 lecture-recitation hours and 3 laboratory hours.


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